捕鱼大作战

上海沪工阀门厂(集团)有限公司

沪工阀门

上海沪工阀门厂(集团)有限公司

本书共分 7 章。主要介绍国内外工业管道及阀门的现状与发展;工业管道及阀门维修、安装必备的基本知识;管道布置和常用竹材、管件及附件;介绍管通和阀门的修理及安装;管道的试压与防腐保温;管道故障及维护。附录还介绍管路系统图形符号和图例。

BENSHUKEGONGGUANDAO、FAMENJIXIESHEBEIWEIXIURENYUANHEGUANGDAGONGCHENGJISHURENYUANCANKAOSHIYONG。

序言

捕鱼大作战 YOUZHONGGUOJIBEIGONGCHENGXUEHUISHEBEIYUWEIXIUGONGCHENGFENHUIZHUBIAN,JIXIEGONGYECHUBANSHE 1964 NIAN 12 YUECHUBANFAXINGDE 《JIXIUSHOUCE》(8 JUAN 10 BEN),SHENSHOUSHEBEIGONGCHENGJISHURENYUANHEGUANGDADUZHEDEHUANYING,CENGYU 1978 NIANHE 1993 NIANLIANGCIZAIBANHE 6 CIYINSHUA,DUIWOGUOSHEBEIGUANLIHEWEIXIUGONGZUOQIDAOLEJIJIDEZUOYONG。

捕鱼大作战 SUIZHEKEJIFAZHANHEZHISHIGENGXIN,SHEBEIDEGENGXINHUANDAI,《JIXIUSHOUCE》DENEIRONGYIBUNENGSHIYINGSHIDAIFAZHANDEYAOQIU,YINGGAIZHONGXINBIANXIEHEXIUDING。DANSHI,YOUYUGONGCHENGHAODA,LIBUCONGXIN。WEIMANZUGUANGDASHEBEIGUANLIHEWEIXIUGONGZUOZHEDEXUYAO,JINGJIXIEGONGYECHUBANDUHEZHONGGUOJIXIEGONGCHENGXUEHUISHEBEIYUWEIXIUGONGCHENGFENHUIGONGTONGSHANGDING,CONG《JIXIUSHOUCE》ZHONGXUANCHUBUFENCHANGYONGDE、YOUDAIBIAOXINGDEJIXING,CHONGSHIXINJISHU、XINNEIRONG,YICONGSHUDEXINGSHIZHONGXINBIANXIE。

CONG 2000 NIANKAISHI,ZHONGGUOJIXIEGONGCHENGXUEHUISHEBEIYUWEIXIUGONGCHENGFENHUIZUZHISICHUANSHENGSHEBEIWEIXIUXUEHUIHEZHONGGUODIERZHONGXINGJIXIEJITUANGONGSI、ZHONGGUOHANGTIANGONGYEZONGGONGSIDIYIYANJIUYUAN、BINGQIGONGYEJITUANGONGSI、SHENYANGSHIJIXIEGONGCHENGXUEHUI、SHANXISHENGSHEBEIWEIXIUXUEHUIHESHANXIGUFENGJICHANG,SHANGHAISHISHEBEIWEIXIUZHUANYEWEIYUANHUIHESHANGHAIZHONGXINGJIQICHANG、TIANJINTANGGUSHEBEIWEIXIUXUEHUIHEDAGUHUAGONGCHANG、DALIANHAISHIDAXUE、WUHANGANGTIEGONGSIYANGQIYOUXIANZERENGONGSI、GUANGDONGSHENGJIXIEGONGCHENGXUEHUIHEGUANGZHOUGONGYEDAXUE、SHANXISHENGSHEBEIWEIXIUXUEHUIHETAIYUANLIGONGDAXUEDENGDANWEIJINXINGBIANXIE。

CONG 2002 NIANKAISHI.DAOXIANZAIYIJINGCHUBAN 19 ZHONG。QIZHONG,2002 NIANCHUBANLE《YEYAYUQIDONGSHEBEIWEIXIUWENDA》、《KONGDIAOZHILENGSHEBEIWEIXIUWENDA》、《SHUKONGJICHUANGGUZHANGJIANCEYUWEIXIUWENDA》、《GONGYEGUOLUWEIXIUYUGAIZAOWENDA》4 ZHONG;2003 NIANCHUBANLE《DIANHANJIWEIXIUWENDA》、《JICHUANGDIANQISHEBEIWEIXIUWENDA》、《DIANTISHIYONGYUWEIXIUWENDA》3 ZHONG;2004 NIANCHUBANLE《FENGJIJIXITONGYUNXINGYUWEIXIUWENDA》、《FASHENGLUMEIQISHENGCHANSHEBEIYUNXINGYUWEIXIUWENDA》、《QIZHONGSHEBEIWEIXIUWENDA》、《SHUSONGSHEBEIWEIXIUWENDA》4 ZHONG;2005 NIANCHUBANLE《GONGCHANGDIANQISHEBEIWEIXIUWENDA》、《MIFENGSHIYONGYUWEIXIUWENDA》、《SHEBEIRUNHUAWEIXIUWENDA》3 ZHONG。2006 NIANCHUBANLE《GONGCHENGJIXIEWEIXIUWENDA》、《GONGYELUWEIXIUWENDA》2 ZHONG。2007—2008 NIANCHUBANLE《BENGLEISHEBEIWEIXIUWENDA》、《DUANYASHEBEIWEIXIUWENDA》、《ZHUZAOSHEBEIWEIXIUWENDA》3 ZHONG。2009 NIANYICHUBANYUJIANGCHUBANDEYOU《KONGFENSHEBEIWEIXIUWENDA》、《YALIRONGQISHEBEIGUANLIYUWEIHUWENDA》、《GONGYEGUANDAOJIFAMENWEIXIUWENDA》。

ZHENGZAIBIANXIEDEYOU《KUANGSHANJIXIESHEBEIWEIHUWENDA》、《JIAOLUJIXIESHEBEIANZHUANGYUWEIHUWENDA》。

WOMENDUIJIJICANJIAZUZHI、BIANXIEHEGUANXINZHICHICONGSHUBIANXIEGONGZUODETONGZHIBIAOSHIGANXIE,YERELIEHUANYINGCONGSHISHEBEIYUWEIXIUGONGCHENGDEXINGJIALISHOUJIJICANJIACONGSHUDEBIANXIEGONGZUO,SHIZHEITAOCONGSHUZHENZHENGCHENGWEICONGSHISHEBEIWEIXIURENYUANDELIANGSHIYIYOU。

编写说明

捕鱼大作战 GUANDAOJIFAMENZAIGUOMINJINGJIJIANSHEHERENMINSHENGHUOZHONGSHIBUKEQUESHAODESHESHI。TASHEJIDELINGCHENGJIAOWEIGUANGFAN,LIRU:RENENGCHUANDI,JIPAISHUI,GEZHONGQITI,YETIHEWULIAOSHUSONG。JUNYAOKAOGUANDAODESHUSONGLAIWANCHENG。

CONG 20 SHIJI 50 NIANDAIKAISHI,GUANDAODEJIEKOUCAIYONGHANJIEJIEGOUDAITILUOWENLIANJIE。GUANDAODECAIZHICONGZHUTIEHETANGANGDANYIPINZHONGFAZHANWEIDUOPINZHONG。JINCONGGANGDEPINZHONGERYAN,JIUYOUTANGANG、HEJINGANG、NAIREGANG、NAISUANGANG、BUXIUGANGDENG。YOUSEJINYAOGUANCAIYOULVJILVHEJIN、TONGJITONGHEJIN、QIANJIQIANHEJINDENG。FEIJINSHUGUANCAIYOUYINGZHIJULVYIXIGUAN、SHUINIGUAN、SHIBANGSHUINIGUAN、NAISUANTAOCIGUANDENGXUDUOPINZHONG。HANJIEGONGYIJISHUYESUIZHEGUANCAIYOULEXINDEFAZHAN。YINCI,GANDAOJIFAMENWEIXIU、ANZHUANGYEYOULEXINDEYAOQIUHEGUOJIAXINDEBIAOZHUNJIANYAN。WEICI,ZHONGGUOJIXIEGONGCHENGXUEHUISHEBEIYUWEIXIUGONGCHENGFENHUIHEJIXIEGONGYECHUBANSHEZUZHIBIANXIELE《GONGYEGUANDAOJIMENMENWEIXIUWENDA》。

捕鱼大作战 《GONGYEGUANDAOJIFAMENWEIXIUWENDA》 SHIJIEHEWOMENDESHIJIAN。DUI《JIXIUSHOUCE》DI 5 JUANDI 6 PIANGONGYEGUANDAODEXIULIJINXINGLEXIUDING。BINGZENGJIALEGUANDAOJIFAMENWEIXIU、ANZHUANGBIBEIDEJIBENZHISHI,YIJIXINJIANXIUBIAOZHUNHEXIANJINWEIXIUFANGFA,DUIGUANDAOJIFAMENDESHIYONG、WEIHU、JIANXIUDOUYOUYIDINGZHIDAOZUOYONG。ZHEISHIGUANDAOJIFAMENDEGUANLI、XUANYONG、WEIXIU、ANZHUANGRENYUANBIBEIDEYIBENXINSHU。

BENSHUDI 1、3、7 ZHANGYOUWANGFENGXIBIANXIE,DI 2、4 ZHANGYOUHUANGJINQIBIANXIE,DI 5 ZHANGYOUZHUQUANBIANXIE,DI 6 ZHANGYOUYANGXIAOBINBIANXIE,FULUYOUXUYOUBIANXIE,SUNXIANQIANGYECANJIALEBUFENBIANXIE。QUANSHUYOUJIANGSHIZHONG,CENGHANLINSHENGAO。BENSHUZAIBIANXIEGUOCHENGZHONGDEDAOZHONGGUOCEERZHONGXINGJIXIEJITUANGONGSIZONGJINGLISHIKE,FUZONGJINGLICENGXIANGDONG。ZHUANGBEIBUZHANGGUOGUOYINGDENGDEREQINGBANGZHUHEZHICHI,ZAICIBIAOSHIGANXIE。

第 1 章 国内外工业管道及阀门的现状与发展

1-1 管道完整性管理技术的最新发展如何?

DA:JINNIANLAI,GUOWAIZAIGUANDAOWANZHENGXINGGUANLIFANGMIANKAIZHANLEDALIANGDEYANJIUHESHIJIAN。ZAI 2006 NIANZHAOKAIDEGUOJIGUANDAOHUIYISHANG,JIESHAOLEMEIGUOGUANDAOWANZHENGXINGGUANLIDEZUIXINJINZHANHEFAZHANQUSHI,BAOKUOGUANDAOWANZHENGXINGGUANLIDEJINZHANYUSHIJIAN、ZHIJIEPINGJIAJISHU、NEIJIANCEJISHUJINZHANDENGFANGMIAN,BINGDUIWOGUOKAIZHANGUANDAOWANZHENGXINGGUANLIGONGZUOTICHULEJIANYI。

(1)GAISHU

GUOJIGUANDAOHUIYI(International Pipeline Conference)SHIYOUMEIGUOJIXIEGONGCHENGSHIXUEHUI(ASME)ZHUBANDEQUANQIUYOUQIGUANDAOGONGYEJIEDESHENGHUI。2006 NIAN 9 YUE 24~29 RI,GUOJIGUANDAOHUIYIZAIJIANADAKAERJIALISHIJUXING。GUANDAOWANZHENGXINGGUANLI PIM(Pipeline Integrity Management),ZAICIHUIYISHANGYIRANSHIGUOJIGUANDAOGONGYEGUANZHUDEREDIAN,LUNWENDUODA 95 PIAN,NEIRONGSHEJIGUANDAOWANZHENGXINGGUANLIJIJISHUDEGEGEFANGMIAN,TIXIANLEGUANDAOWANZHENGXINGGUANLIDEZUIXINJINZHAN。

GENJUCIHUIYIQINGKUANG,DUIMEIGUOWEIXIANYETIGUANDAOWANZHENGXINGGUANLIJIANCHAGONGZUO、ZHIJIEPINGJIAJISHUHENEIJIANCEJISHUDEZUIXINJINZHANHEFAZHANFANGXIANGJINXINGLEFENXI,BINGZHENDUISHANGSHUFANGMIANDUIWOGUOKAIZHANGUANDAOWANZHENGXINGGUANLIGONGZUOTICHUJIANYI。

(2)DUIWEIXIANYETIGUANDAOWANZHENGXINGGUANLIGONGZUODEJIANCHA

2002 NIAN 11 YUE,MEIGUOGUOHUITONGGUOLEZHUANMENDE H.R.3609 HAOFAAN—《GUANDAOANQUANZENGJINFA》,BINGYU 2002 NIAN 12 YUE 27 RI JINGZONGTONGQIANSHUHOUSHENGXIAO。CIFAANYAOQIUGUANDAOYUNYINGSHANGZAICHUXIANANQUANHOUGUOYANZHONGDIQUSHISHIGUANDAOWANZHENGXINGGUANLIJIHUA,ANZHAOGUANDAOZHANGDUDUIGUANDAOJINXINGLEFENLEI:ZHANGDUCHAOGUO 804km(500mile)DEWEIYILEIGUANDAO,ZHANGDUXIAOYU804km(500mile)DEWEIERLEIGUANDAO。YAOQIUYUNYINGSHANGZAI 2004 NIAN 9 YUE 30 RIQIAN,WANCHENGYILEIGUANDAO 50% DEJIXIANPINGJIA;ZAI 2005 NIAN 8 YUE 16 RIQIAN,WANCHENGERLEIGUANDAO 50% DEGUANDAOJIXIANPINGJIA。

WEIJIANCHAGUANDAOYUNYINGSHANGDUIFAANDEZHIXINGQINGKUANGJIJINYIBUTUIJINWANZHENGXINGGUANLI,MEIGUOGUANDAOHEWEIXIANWUZHIGUANLIJU(PHMSA)CONG 2002 NIAN 9 YUEKAISHI,DUIWEIXIANYETIGUANDAOWANZHENGXINGGUANLIDESHISHIQINGKUANGJINXINGLESHOULUNJIANCHA。ZAISHOULUNJIANCHAZHONG,PHMSA WANCHENGLESUOYOUYILEIGUANDAOYIJIBUMENERLEIGUANDAODEJIANCHA。JIEZHI 2005 NIAN 12 YUE,BINGWANCHENGLE 175 GEWEIXIANYETIGUANDAODESHOULUNJIANCHA,GUANDAOHEJI 273104km(169841mile),QIZHONGYIQUEDINGWEICHUXIANANQUANHOUGUOYANZHONGDIQUDEWEI 121534km(75581mile)。ZAIZONGJIESHOULUNJIANCHAJINGYANDEJICHUSHANG,CONG 2005 NIANZHONGQIKAISHI,PHMSA JIQIZHOUSHUGUANDAOANQUANJIGOUKAISHIDUIWEIXIANYETIGUANDAOJINXINGDIERLUNJIANCHA,ZHONGDIANZAIYULUOSHISHOULUNJIANCHAZHONGFAXIANDEXUYAOGAIJINDEDIFANGYIJIGAOFENGXIANYINSU。

1)JIANCHANEIRONG:GENJU《FENGXIANGUANLISHIFANGANGYAO》、《XITONGWANZHENGXINGJIANCHAZHIDAOGANGYAO》,YIJI APLI160《WEIXIANYETIGUANDAOWANZHENGXINGGUANLI》BIAOZHUN,DUIGUANDAOYUNYINGSHANGJIANLIWANZHENGXINGGUANLITIXIDEYAOQIU。JIANCHANEIRONGBAOKUO:①JIANCHAWANZHENGXINGGUANLIFANGANDECHENGXU、ZHIXINGQINGKUANGHEWENDANGBIANZHI;②JIANCHAGUANDAOYUNYINGSHANGWANCHENGDEWANZHENGXINGPINGJIA;③JIANCHANEIJIANCEJIEGUOJIWENTISHIBIE;④JIANCHAXIUFUHEJIANHUANJIHUA;⑤QUERENSHIFOUANFAGUIYAOQIUDESHIJIANJINXINGXIUFU;⑥JIANCHASHIYAJILUSHIFOUANLIANBANGFAGUI 49CFR495 ZHIXING,JIANCHAYUNYINGSHANGDUISUOYOUSHIYANSHIXIAODEPINGGU;⑦QUERENYUFANGHEJIANHUANCUOSHISHIFOUDEDAOZHIXING;⑧JIANCHAZUJINYIBUDUIZICHAN、SHIJIXIUFU、ZHIJIEPINGJIAJIWANZHENGXINGGUANLIFANGANXIANGGUANDENEIRONGJINXINGQUANMIANJIANDU。

捕鱼大作战 2)JIANCHAJIEGUO:JUEDADUOSHUGUANDAOYUNYINGSHANGYIJINGJIANLIBINGZHIXINGLEWANZHENGXINGGUANLITIXI,JIBENZHANGWOLEHOUGUOYANZHONGDIQUDEGUANDUAN,BINGANZHAOGUIZEYAOQIU,DUIZHEIXIEDIQUJINXINGLEWANZHENGXINGPINGJIA。JIEZHI 2005 NIAN 12 YUE,YIJINGWANCHENGLE 86% DEWEIXIANYETIGUANDAODEJIXIANPINGJIA,ZHIYOUJISHAOSHUYUNYINGSHANGWEIZAIZUIHOUSHIXIANQIANWANCHENG 50% GUANDUANDEWANZHENGXINGPINGJIA。ZAISHOULUNJIANCHAZHONG,PHMSA DUI 1200 GEXUYAO“LIJIXIUFU”DEQUEXIANCHULIQINGKUANGJINXINGLEHESHI。CHUXUYAOLIJIXIUFUHUO 60 TIAN、180 TIANZHINEIBIXUXIUFUDEQINGKUANGWAI,YUNYINGSHANGYEXIUFULEDALIANGDEQITAYICHANGQINGKUANG,YUNYINGSHANGYEXIUFULEDALIANGDEQITAYICHANGQINGKUANG。XINGYESHUJUXIANSHI,2004 NIANGONGYOU 11674 ZHONGQINGKUANGBEIXIUFUHUOJIANHUAN,BAOKUOYINGXIANGHOUGUOYANZHONGDIQUHEFEIYINGXIANGQUYU。

PHMSA ZONGJIESHOULUNJIANCHAJINGYAN,JIUYIXIAFANGMIANTICHULEGAIJINYIJIAN:①SHUJUZHENGHE。YOUXIAODESHUJUZHENGHESHIWANZHENGXINGGUANLIDEGUANJIAN,MUQIANYIJINGKAIFALEYIXIEGONGJUHEFANGFA,DUIBUTONGLEIXINGSHUJUJINXINGZUHEFENXI,DANZHEIFANGMIANDEGONGZUOHAICHUYUKAISHIJIEDUAN。②DUINEIJIANCEJIEGUODEXIANGYING。BUFENYUNYINGSHANGMEIYOULIYONGNEIJIANCEDEJIEGUOJINXINGFENXI,WEIJISHIGENJUNEIJIANCEJIEGUOZHIDINGBINGZHIXINGXIUFUHUOJIANHUANJIHUA,CONGERYINGXIANGLEDUINEIJIANCEJIEGUODEYOUXIAOLIYONG。③FENGXIANFENXI。DUOSHUYUNYINGSHANGYIYINGYONGFENGXIANFENXIJISHU,DUIJINXINGJISHUPINGJIADEGUANDAOJINXINGPAIXU;DANYIXIEYUNYINGSHANGSUOYUNYONGDEFENGXIANMOXING,HAIMEIYOUFUGAIGUANDAOFENGXIANDEQUANBUFANWEI,RENGRANXUYAOGAIJINFENXIFANGFAYIFUGAISUOYOUFENGXIAN,YOUQISHIYAOZHENGHESUOYOUSHUJULAIQIADANGDIPINGJIAGUANDAOFENGXIAN。④YUFANGHEJIANHUANCUOSHI。SHOULUNJIANCHAZHONGFAXIANXUDUOYUNYINGSHANGQUEFAYUFANGHEJIANHUANCUOSHIDEFENXI,BAOKUODUIJIANLOUNENGLIJIJINJIQINGKUANGCHULINENGLIDEPINGGU。ZAIYIJINGKAISHIDEDIERLUNJIANCHAZHONG,HAIWEIJIANDAOMINGXIANDEGAIJIN。⑤CHIXUDEPINGGUHEPINGJIA。WANCHENGJIXIANPINGJIAHOU,ZAIRUHEHELIQUEDINGZHOUQIPINGJIADESHIJIANJIANGEFANGMIAN,XUYAOJINXINGJINYIBUYANJIU,YINGZHEZHONGYUFENXIYUNYINGSHANGJINXINGZHOUQIPINGJIADESHISHIXIAOGUO。⑥WANZHENGXINGGUANLISHISHIXIZE。APLI160 SHIWANZHENGXINGGUANLIDETONGYONGBIAOZHUN,YUNYINGSHANGHAIYINGJIANLISHISHIXIZE,YIZENGQIANGWANZHENGXINGGUANLIDEYOUXIAOXING。⑦WANZHENGXINGJUECEHEFENXIDEJISHUJICHU。YUNYINGSHANGRENGRANMEIYOUCHONGFENDELIYONGLISHISHUJU,LAIJUEDINGFENGXIANYINSUHEZAIPINGJIA;LINGWAI,DUILISHISHUJUBUCHONGFENQINGKUANGXIADEJUECEFENXIFANGFAYOUDAIGAIJIN。PHMSA XIWANGYOUGENGDUODEJISHUHEFANGFA,ZUOWEIWANZHENGXINGJUECEHEFENXIDEJICHU。⑧WANZHENGXINGCHENGXUWENJIAN。WENJIANBIANZHIDEWANZHENGXINGHEZHILIANG,SHIWANZHENGXINGCHENGXUDEGUANJIANYAOSU。XUDUOYUNYINGSHANGDUIPINGJIAJILU、XIUFUJILU、WENJIANDEBIANZHIGUOCHENG、JISHUYANZHENG、JUECEJICHUQUEFAZUGOUDEZHONGSHI。

捕鱼大作战 (3)ZHIJIEPINGJIAJISHUDEJINZHAN

NEIJIANCE、SHIYA、ZHIJIEPINGJIASHIGUANDAOWANZHENGXINGPINGJIADESANZHONGZHUYAOFANGFA。JINGUANZHINENGJIANCEQIZAIBUDUANGENGXIN,DANRENGYOUXUDUOGUANDAOBUNENGSHIYONGNEIJIANCESHEBEI,SHIYAFASHIZHENDUIYIXIETEDINGGUANDAODEPINGJIAFANGFA,DANYAOQIUGUANDAOZAITINGSHUZHUANGTAIXIASHIYONG。DUIWUFAJINXINGNEIJIANCEHESHIYADEGUANDAO,KEYIXUANZESHIYONGZHIJIEPINGJIAJISHUJINXINGWANZHENGXINGPINGJIA。YUNEIJIANCE、SHIYADENGCHUANTONGPINGJIAFANGFAXIANGBI,ZHIJIEPINGJIAJUYOUCHENGBENDI、YISHISHIDENGTEDIAN。JINNIANLAI,XUDUOGUANDAOYUNYINGSHANGZAIWANZHENGXINGGUANLIFANGANZHONG,YIJINGLIERULEZHIJIEPINGJIAJISHU,LIRU:ZAI Gasunie GONGSIGUANXIADE 12000km DEGAOYAGUANDAOZHONG,JINYOU 50% SHIHEJINXINGGUANDAONEIJIANCE,GAIGONGSICONG 2005 NIANKAISHI,DUIBUSHIHENEIJIANCEDEGUANDAOJINXINGZHIJIEPINGJIA。

捕鱼大作战 1)ZHIJIEPINGJIAFANGFAJIXIANGGUANJISHU:ZHIJIEPINGJIASHIYIZHONGBAGUANDAODEWULITEXING、CAOZUOLISHIYUGUANDAODEJIANCE、JIANCHAJIEGUOJIEHEQILAI,CAIYONGBUKAIWAJIANCEJISHU(YIBANWEIDISHANGHUOJIANJIEJIANCE)、BINGGENJUJIANCEJIEGUOJINXINGKAIWAHEJIANCHA,LAIQUEDINGGUANDAOWANZHENGXINGDEFANGFA。YIBANFENWEIYUPINGJIA、JIANJIEJIANCE、ZHIJIEJIANCHA、HOUPINGJIASIGEBUZHOU:①YUPINGJIA。TONGGUOSHUJUSHOUJIHEFENXI、QUEDINGZHIJIEPINGJIASHIFOUKEXING,HUAFENPINGJIAQUYUHEXUANZEJIANJIEJIANCEGONGJU。②JIANJIECEPING。ZHUYAOWEIDIMIANJIANCE,MUDESHIQUEDINGTUCENGQUEXIANYANZHONGCHENGDU、QITAYICHANGJIGUANDAOSHANGYIFASHENGHUOKENENGFASHENGFUSHIDEQUYU。③ZHIJIEJIANCHA。GENJUJIANJIEJIANCHAJIEGUODEFENXI,LAIXUANZEKAIWADIANWEIZHIHESHULIANG,BINGZAIKAIWAHOUDUIGUANDAOBIAOMIANZHIJIEJIANCHA。④HOUPINGJIA。YANZHENGZHIJIEPINGJIAFANGFADEYOUXIAOXING,BINGQUEDINGXIAYICIPINGJIADESHIJIANJIANGE。

捕鱼大作战 ZHIJIEPINGJIAANZHAOGUANDAODEWEIXIEYINSU,FENWEIWAIFUSHIZHIJIEPINGJIA(ECDA)、NEIFUSHIZHIJIEPINGJIA(ICDA)HEYINGLIFUSHIKAILIEZHIJIEPINGJIA(SCCDA)。

ECDA FANGFAYIJIAOCHENGSHU。2002 NIAN,MEIGUOFUSHIGONGCHENGSHIXIEHUI(NACE)TICHULE ECDA FANGFADETUIJIANBIAOZHUN NACE RPO502-2002《GUANDAOWAIBUFUSHIZHIJIEPINGJIATUIJIANZUOFA》。

捕鱼大作战 ICDA FANGFAFENWEISANLEI,FENBIESHIYONGYUGANQI、SHIQIHEYETIGUANDAO。MUQIANZHENDUIGANQIDE ICDA FANGFA,HAIYOUHAIYOUXUDUOJISHUNANTIYAOKEFU。

SCCDA FANGFABUZHOUYU ECDA XIANGSI,ZHONGDIANSHISHIBIERONGYIFASHENG SCC DEQINGKUANGHEPINGGUKEYIDEGUANDAOXITONG。CIFANGFASHIYONGYUGAO pH ZHIDE SCC(CHUANTONGDE)HEJIEJINZHONGXING pH ZHIDE SCC(XINXING SCC)。MUQIAN,BEIMEIYIZHESHOUJIANLIYINGLIFUSHIKAILIEDEZHIJIEPINGJIAFANGFA。ZHENDUIYINGLIFUSHIKAILIEYALISHIYANJIANGESHIJIANDEFANGFADEYANJIUYEYOULEXINDEJINZHAN。

ZHIJIEPINGJIAFANGFASHISHISHI,XUYAOJIANJIEJIANCEFANGFAZUOWEIJISHUZHICHI。WEITIGAOJIANCEKEKAOXING,NACE YAOQIUYUNYINGSHANGSHIYONGLIANGZHONGHUOGENGDUOJIANJIEJIANCEGONGJU,YIDUIJIANCEJIEGUOXIANGHUYANZHENG。

CHANGYONGDEJIANJIEPINGJIAJISHIYOUZHILIUDIANWEITIDUJIANCEJISHU(DCVG)、MIJIANGEDIANWEIJIANCEJISHU(CIPS)、JIAOLIUDIANLIUSHUAIJIANJISHU、DIANYACHAJISHUDENG。

捕鱼大作战 ZHIJIEDIANWEITIDUJIANCEJISHUYONGLAITANCEHECHAMINGTUCENGQUEXIAN。QIYUANLISHI:ZAISHIJIALEYINJIBAOHUMAIDIGUANXIANSHANG,DIANLIUJINGGUOTURANGJIEZHI,LIURUGUANDAOFANGFUCENGPOSUNERLUOLUDEGUANDAOCHU,ZAIGUANDAOFANGFUCENGPOHUAICHUDIMIANSHANGXINGCHENGYIGEDIANYATIDUCHANG。ZAIJIEJINPOSUNLUOLUDIANBUWEI,DIANLIUMIDUZENGDA,DIANYATIDUZENGDA。YIBANQINGKUANGXIA、DIANYATIDUYULUOLUMIANJICHENGZHENGBILIGUANXIGAIJISHUNENGJIANCECHUJIAOXIAODEFANGFUCENGPOSUNDIAN、BINGKEYIJINGQUEDINGWEI,WUCHAWEI ±15cm。ZHEISHISHIJIESHANGBIJIAOXIANJINDEMAIDIGUANDAOFANGFUCENGQUEXIANCESHIJISHU。

捕鱼大作战 MIJIANGEDIANWEIJIANCEJISHUSHIDANGJINJIANDUANDEJIANCEJISHUZHIYI,SHIYIZHONGYONGLAITIGONGGUANDAODUIDIDIANWEIYUJULIGUANXIDEDIMIANJIANCEJISHU,NENGZHISHIGUANDAOYANXIANDEYINJIBAOHUXIAOGUO,ZHICHUQUEXIANDEYANZHONGXING,BINGZIDONGCAIJISHUJU。QIQUEDIANSHIGONGZUORENYUANXUXIEJIANCESHEBEIYANGUANDAOLIANXUCELIANG,QIJIANCHAJIEGUOBUNENGZHISHITUCENGDEBOLIQINGKUANG,HAIKENENGSHOUDAOGANRAODIANLIUDEYINGXIANGSHIYONGFANWEISHOUDAOYIDINGDEXIANZHI。

JIAOLIUDIANLIUSHUAIJIANJISHUCAIYONGDENGXIAODIANLIUYUANLI,LAIPINGJIAFANGFUCENGJUEYUANDIANZU。DANGWAIJIAJIAOLIUDIANLIULIUGUOGUANDAOSHI,ZAIGUANDAOZHOUWEICHANSHENGXIANGYINGDECICHANG。DANGGUANDAOWAIFANGFUCENGWANHAOSHI,SUIZHEGUANDAODEYANSHEN,DIANLIUJIAOPINGHENG,WUDIANLIULIUSHIXIANXIANGHUOLIUSHIJIAOSHAO,QIGUANDAOZHOUWEICHANSHENGDECICHANGBIJIAOWENDING;DANGGUANDAOWAIFANGFUTUCENGPOSUNHUOLAOHUASHI,ZAIPOSUNCHUJIUHUIYOUDIANLIULIUSHIXIANXIANG,SUIZHEGUANDAODEYANSHEN,QIZAIGUANDAOZHOUWEICICHANGDEQIANGDUJIUHUIJIANRUO,ZHEISHIMUQIANGUONEIWAIYINGYONGBIJIAOCHENGSHUDEYIZHONGJIANCEFANGFA,KEZHANGJIANJUKUAISUTANCEZHENGTIAOGUANXIANDEFANGFUCENGZHUANGKUANG,YEKESUODUANJIANJUDUISUNPODIANJINXINGDINGWEI。

DIANLIUCHAJIANCEJISHUYUANLISHI:ZAIGUANDAOYUDADIZHIJIANSHIJIADEJIAOBIANDIANYAXINHAO,TONGGUOGUANDAOFANGFUCENGPOSUNDIANCHUSHI,HUILIUSHIZAIDADITURANGZHONG;YINERDIANLIUMIDUSUIZHEYUANLIPOSUNDIANDEJULIERJIANXIAO,ZAIPOSUANDIANDESHANGFANGDIBIAOMIANXINGCHENGLEYIGEJIAOLIUDIANYATIDU,JINGGUOLVBOFANGDAHOU,XIANSHIJIANCEJIEGUO。

GENJU 2006 NIANGUOJIGUANDAOHUIYISHANGZHANSHIDEZUIXINYANJIUJIEGUO,MEIGUOXINANYANJIUYUANHE CC JISHUGONGSI,KAIFALEYINGYONGBOMOFUSHICHUANGANQIYUYIDONGWUXIANJISHUXIANGJIEHEDEJIANCEGUANDAONEIFUSHIDEJISHU;ZHONGGUOSHIYOUTIANRANQIJITUANGONGSI,KAIFALEYINGYONGCHAOSHENGDAOBOCELIANGGUANDAOTUCENGNEIFUSHIJISHU;PETROBRAS GONGSIKAIFALEYINGYONGSHENGXUEFASHEJISHUDEZHIJIEPINGJIAFANGFA;Trans Canada GONGSIKAIFACHULEYINGYONGCIXUEDEJINSHUSUNSHIJIANCEGONGJUDENG。MUQIAN,JIEHE DCVC、CIPS、HOUCHULICHAFENQUANQIUDINGWEIXITONG(dGPS)SANZHONGJISHUDEXINXINGJIANCESHEBEIZHENGZAIYANFAZHIZHONG。

捕鱼大作战 2)ZHIJIEPINGJIAJISHUBIAOZHUN:MEIGUOFUSHIGONGCHENGSHIXIEHUI(NACE)ZHENGZAIHUOYIJINGBIANZHILEECDA、DG-ICDA(GANQI)、WG-ICDA(SHIQI)HE SCCDA BIAOZHUN。ECDA BIAOZHUNYIJINGWANCHENG,YEHUIBINGRUGAIXIANGGUIZE。NACE GUANYU DG-ICDA DEBIAOZHUNYOUWANGZAIJINQICHUTAI;WG-ICDA HEYETIGUANDAO ICDA DECHUGAOHAICHUYUBIANZHIDEQIANQIJIEDUAN,YOUWANGZAI NACE 2007NIANGUOJIFUSHIHUIYISHANGJINXINGTAOLUN。

捕鱼大作战 3)ZHUANTIYANJIUGONGZUO:WEIJIAQIANGWANZHENGXINGXIANGGUANJISHUDEYANJIU,MEIGUOGUOHUIJIADALEDUI PHMSA GUANDAOANQUANYANFAXIANGMUDEZHICHILIDU。JINGGUOGUOHUIDESHOUQUAN,PHMSA ZHONGDIANZIZHULEYIXIEYANFAXIANGMU,YIJIAQIANGMEIGUONENGYUANYUNSHUHEPEISONGGUANDAODEANQUANXING、KEKAOXINGHEHEHUHUANJINGYAOQIUDECAOZUOGONGYIDEJIEJUEFANGAN。CONG 2002 NIANKAISHI,PHMSA YIGONGZHICHILE 25 GEYUZHIJIEPINGJIAJISHUXIANGGUANDEYANFAXIANGMU,YIXIEGONGYEZUZHI、GUANDAOYUNYINGSHANG、GUANLIZHEHEYANJIUJIGOUGONGTONGWEIZHEIXIEXIANGMUTIGONGLEJIN 1400 WANMEIYUANDEZIZHU。ZHEIXIEXIANGMUYOUMEIGUO、JIANADAHEOUZHOUDEYANJIUJIGOUFENBIECHENGDAN,ZHONGDIANZAIYUKUODAZHIJIEPINGJIADEYINGYONGFANWEI,YIJIZAIZHIJIEPINGJIAGUOCHENGZHONGGEXIANGWANZHENGXINGJISHUDEZHENGHE。GUOJIGUANDAOYANJIUHUI(PRCI)、MEIGUOTIANRANQIXIEHUI(AGA)HEMEIGUONENGYUANBUZHOUJITIANRANQIXIEHUI(INGAA)DENGZUZHI,YEDUIXUDUOQIYEHEXIANGMUJINXINGLEZANZHU。

捕鱼大作战 ZHEIXIEZHUANTIYANJIUBAOKUOLESHIJIXIAOGUOYANJIU、JIANJIEJIANCESHEBEIYINGYONGXIAOGUO、LIUTILIXUEMOXING、ZHIJIEPINGJIADEBUZHENGQUEXINGHEKEKAOXING、DUISHIJIANDEZONGJIEDENG,JUTIYOUYIXIAJIGEFANGMIAN:①DUI ECDA HENEIJIANCESHUJUJINXINGDUIBI,YIDUI ECDA FANGFAJINXINGYANZHENG;TONGGUOSHILILUNZHENG NACE FABUTUIJIANDEYOUXIAOXING;DUIFUHEGUAN、GUANGGUAN、YANSHIQUHEQITANANYIJINXING ECDA PINGJIADEQINGKUANGJINXINGSHIYAN;DUIBUHESHIJINXING ECDA PINGJIADETIAOJIANJINXINGYANJIU;ZHENDUINANYIJINXING ECDA DEQUYUKAIFAJIQIRENXITONG。②JIANCHAYANZHENG DG-ICDA ZUOWEIYUCENEIFUSHIWEIZHIDEFANGFA,KAIZHANDUI WG-ICDA DECHUBUYANJIU。③PINGGUDAOBOJISHUDEYOUXIAOXING,YANJIUDUIYUANJULICHAOSHENGDAOBOXINHAODEZENGQIANGJIQUYUKUODAKENENGXINGDEPINGGU;YUANJULICHAOSHENGDAOBOYUJISUANJIZHONGDUANDESHUJUCHULIHETONGXINXITONGJIEHEJISHU;JIADADIMIANJIANCEGUANBIJINSHUSUNSHIGONGJUDEYANFALIDU,SHIZHINENGYUZHINENGJIANCEQIJISHUKANGHENG。

PHMSA HEMEIGUOGUANDAOANQUANDAIBIAOXIEHUI(NAPSR),LIANHEZUZHIMEIGUONENGYUANBUZHOUJITIANRANQIXIEHUI(INGAA)、MEIGUOTIANRANQIXIEHUI(AGA)、MEIGUOFUSHIGONGCHENGSHIXIEHUI(NACE)、MEIGUOMINYONGTIANRANQIXIEHUI(APGA)JUBANLELUNTAN,ZHUANTITAOLUNYUTIANRANQIWANZHENGXINGXIANGGUANDEZHIJIEPINGJIAJISHU。PHMSA XIANGGUANLIZHEHEXINGYETUIJIEZHIJIEPINGJIAYANFADEXIANZHUANG,TIGONGZHIJIEPINGJIASHISHIDEDIANXINGANLI。BINGTAOLUN NACE YOUGUAN ECDA、ICDA、SCCDA BIAOZHUNDEJINZHANQINGKUANG。

ZHIJIEPINGJIAJISHUJIANGBUDUANWEIXIANZAINANYIPINGJIADEQUYU,TIGONGGAIJINLEDEJIEJUEFANGAN。ZHIJIEPINGJIABUJINZUOWEIYIZHONGZHIYAODEPINGJIAGONGJU,TONGSHIZUOWEIZHINENGJIANCEQIHESHIYADEFUZHUGONGJU,JIANGJUYOUGENGJIAGUANGFANDEYINGYONGQIANJING。

捕鱼大作战 (4)NEIJIANCEJISHUDEJINZHANYIJICUNZAIDEWENTI

SUIZHEWANZHENGXINGGUANLIDEFAZHAN,XUYAOJINGQUEKEKAODESHUJU,LAIZHIXINGXIANJINDEWANZHENGXINGPINGJIAJIHUAHEYOUHUAFANGFA;DUINEIJIANCEQIDEJINGQUEXING、KEKAOXING、KEZHONGFUXING、KEDUIBIXINGYIJIGAOFENBIANLVDENGFANGMIAN,TICHULEGENGGAODEYAOQIU。GEZHONGJIANCEJISHUBUDUANFAZHAN,YINGYONGGEZHONGYUANLIDEGUANDAOZHINENGNEIJIANCEBUDUANGENGXIN,NEIJIANCEJISHUQUDELESHIZHIXINGDEJINZHAN,DANRENGRANCUNZAIYIXIEWENTI。

1)LIEWENNEIJIANCEJISHU:MUQIANZUISHIHEYUJIANCELIEWENDEJISHUSHICHAOSHENGBOFANGFA,MAICHONGBOZAIGUANDAONEIBIAOMIANHEBIAOMIANFANXIANGCHANSHENGZHOUXIANGHENGBO;RUGUOMAICHONGYUDAOLIEWEN,TAJIUHUIYUANLUFANHUIBINGBEIBIANHUANQIJIESHOU,YOUCIJIANCEDAOGAILIEWENDECUNZAI。QIZHUYAOYOUDIANSHINENGGOUTIGONGDUIGUANBIDEDINGLIANGJIANCE,JUYOUJIAOGAODESHUJUJINGDUHEZHIXINDU;QUEDIANSHIXUYAOOUHEJI,YINGYONGYUSHUQIGUANDAOSHIJIAOFUZA。

捕鱼大作战 DEGUO ROSEN GONGSIYANFACHUYIZHONGXINXINGGAOFENBIANLVCHAOSHENGBOJIANCEQI。GAITANCEQISHIYONGDIANCISHENGBOCHUANGANJIANCEJISHU(EMAT),TIGONGLENENGYOUXIAOHEJINGQUEDIJIANCELIEWENDEXINFANGFA。YANJIURENYUANHUAFEI 2 NIANDESHIJIAN,YANZHENG EMAT CHUANGANQIDEJISHUHESHEJI,CONGSHIYANSHIHUODEDEDALIANGSHUJU,ZHENGMINGLE EMAT ZUOWEITANCEGUANDAOYINGLIFUSHIKAILIEHEQITAJIEGOUQUEXIANDEKEXINGXING。ZHEIYIXINXINGJIANCEQIYIJINGTONGGUOLEGONGYESHIYAN,KEYIPANDUAN SCC、TUCENGBOLUO、QITALIEWENQUEXIAN、YICHANGGOUCAO、RENWEIQUEXIANDENG。GAIJISHUZUIDAYOUDIANSHIJIEZHUDIANZISHENGBOCHUANGANQI,DAITILECHUANTONGDEYADIANCHUANGANQI,SHICHAOSHENGBONENGZAIYIZHONGDANXINGDAODIANJIEZHIZHONGDEDAOJILI,BUXUYAOJIXIEJIECHUHUOYETIOUHE,SHISHIYONGYUTIANRANQIGUANDAODECHAOSHENGLIEWENJIANCEQI,QIJIANCEZHIBIAOJIANBIAO 1-1。

表 1-1 ROSEN 裂纹检测器及检测指标
工具参数 检测参数
温度范围/℃ 最大工作压力/MPa 速度范围/(m/s) 最长操作时间/h 弯曲半径 距离/km 壁厚/mm 最小检测临界值/mm 轴向经度/(°)
深度 长度
0~65 15 0.3~5 72 3D 120 5~20 1 20 ±18

ZHU:D WEIGUANJING

捕鱼大作战 CHUANTONGDELIEWENTANCEQIKEJIANCEDELIEWENZHANGDUZUIXIAOLINJIEZHIWEI 30mm。YOUBIAO 1-1 KEJIAN,XINXINGJIANCEQIDELIEWENZHANGDUZUIXIAOLINJIEZHIDADAO 20mm。

捕鱼大作战 2)TONGSHIJINXINGJINSHUSUNSHIHELIEWENDENEIJIANCEJISHU;JINSHUSUNSHIJILIEWENSHIGUANDAODELIANGDAZHUYAOQUEXIAN,CUNZAIYUGUANDAODEZHENGGESHENGMINGZHOUQINEI。ZAIXIANYOUJISHUTIAOJIANXIA,GUANDAOYUNYINGSHANGBIXUFENBIESHIYONGLIEWENTANCEYIHEJINSHUSUNSHIJIANCEYI,DUIGUANDAODEJINSHUSUNSHIHELIEWENJINXINGJIANCE,ZHEIHUIHUAFEIJUDADEJINGLIHECAILI。

捕鱼大作战 2006 NIANDEGUOJIGUANDAOHUIYISHANG,MEIGUO GE-P Ⅱ HEDEGUO NDP GONGSIFENBIETUICHULEYIZHONGXIANJINDENEIJIANCEQI。YINGYONGXINYIDAICHAOSHENG、DIANZIJISHUYUXIANGKONGZHENJISHUXIANGJIEHE,DUICHAOSHENGBOCHUANGANQIJINXINGLEQUANXINDESHEJI,BAJINSHUSUNSHI、BIHOUJILIEWENJIANCEGONGNENGRONGWEIYITI,SHIXIANLEYICITONGGUOKEYITONGSHIJIANCECHUGUANDAODEFUSHIHELIEWEN。

捕鱼大作战 GAIJISHUDETEDIANSHI:DIANZISHESHIKONGZHIDECHAOSHENGBOSHUYUNXUYICITONGGUOJIANCEJINSHUSUNSHIHELIEWEN;YOUHUADECHUANGANQI、CHAOSHENGBOSHUJIDALIANGDECELIANGTONGDAO,SHIXIANLEFUGAIZHENGGEGUANBIYUANZHOUDEGAOFENBIANLV;KEMINGANDITANCEXIAODEAOXIANHEFUSHIZAOCHENGDELIEWEN。

XIANGKONGZHENJISHUYUCHUANTONGCHAOSHENGJISHUXIANGBI,BAOBENGAIJINZAIYU:CHUANTONGWUSUNJIANCEJISHUSHIYONGDECHAOSHENGBOSHUDEXINGZHUANGJICHUANBOFANGXIANG.BEIMEIGECHUANGANQISUOGUDING,MEIGEDULIDECHUANGANQIBEIGUDINGPAILIE,RUGUOCELIANGTIAOJIANGAIBIAN,ZEBIXUGAIBIANCHUANGANQIDEPAILIELEIXING;XIANGKONGZHENJISHUSUOSHIYONGDECHUANGANQIDEPAILIEHEFASHEMOSHISHICHENGXUHUADE,MEIGEDULIDECHUANGANQIJUYOUKEYIFASHEBUTONGFANGXIANGJIBUTONGSHENGSHUTEXINGDEGONGNENG,DANGCELIANGTIAOJIANFASHENGBIANHUASHI,CHAOSHENGBOSHUDESHEZHIQUANBUYOUJISUANJIJIEMIANZHIXINGCAOZUO,BUXUYAOZAIDUICHUANGANQIJINXINGRENGONGXIAOZHUN。

GE-P Ⅱ GONGSIDEYICITONGGUOKETONGSHIJIANCEJINSHUSUNSHIJILIEWENDEXINYIDAICHAOSHENGBOJIANCEQI,YIJINGZAI 2005 NIAN 3 YUEYINGYONGYUOUZHOUYITIAOGUANJINGWEI 609.6mm(24in)DECHENGPINYOUGUANDAO,BINGYU 2005 NIAN 9YUE,DUIBEIMEIYITIAOGUANJINGWEI 863.6mm(34in)DEYUANYOUGUANDAOJINXINGLEJIANCE。ZHEILIANGTIAOGUANDAOYIQIANJUNSHIYONGGUOJINSHUSUNSHIJIANCEQIHELIEWENJIANCEQI,YUYIWANGDEJIANCESHUJUJINXINGDUIBIBIAOMING,KEYISHIYUANZHOUFENBIANLVCONG 8mm TIGAODAO 3.3mm。XIANGKONGCHAOSHENGJISHUNEIJIANCEQIBUJINFENBIANLVGAO,JIEYUESHIJIANHEFEIYONG,TONGSHIJIANCESHUJUJUYOUGAOXIAODEJINGQUEDUHEKEKAODU。

3)JIXIESUNSHANGJIANCEJISHU:JIXIESUNSHANGLAIZIDUIGUANDAOBIAOMIANDEZHIJIECHONGJI,BAOKUOYANSHIYUGUANDAODEZHIJIEJIECHU、BUSHIDANGDEJIANSHEXINGWEIYIJIDISANFANGWAJUEDENG。YOUXIESUNSHANGZAIWEIBEIFAXIANQINGKUANGXIAHUIWEICHIXIANGDANGZHANGDESHIJIAN,CONGERJINYIBUXINGCHENGFUSHIHUOLIEWEN,YOUKENENGDAOZHIGUANDAOYIHOUDESHIXIAO。MUQIAN,JIXIESUNSHANGYIJINGCHENGWEIDAOZHIGUANDAOSHIXIAODEZHUYAOYUANYINZHIYI。GUANDAOYUNYINGSHANGXIWANGTONGGUOSHIYONGSHIDANGDENEIJIANCEGONGJU,KEYIJIANCEGEZHONGYUANYINZAOCHENGDE、YINGXIANGGUANDAOYOUXIAONEIJINGDEJIHEYICHANGXIANXIANG,BINGQUEDINGQICHENGDUHEWEIZHI。

ZUIJINLIANGNIAN,JIHEJIANCEYAOQIUTIGAOLE,QIZHONGDUIAOXIANCHICUNDEZUIXIAOYAOQIUSHI:GAOFENBIANLVDEJIHEGONGJUYINGGAINENGGOUTANCEHEDINGWEISHENDUDAYUDENGYU 6.35mm(0.25in)DEAOXIAN,ERZAIYONGDEJIHEJIANCEQIXIANZHUANGSHI:DUITUOYUANBIANXINGHEDADEBIANXINGNANYITIGONGAOXIANPINGJIADEYOUXIAOXINXI,JIYU 78 LIXIANCHANGWAJUEZHENGSHI,QITANCELVJINWEI 32%,WUFAMANZUYAOQIU;DUIAOXIANHETUOYUANBIANXINGDETEZHENGRENGRANMEIYOUYIGESHIDANGDEQUEXIANPINGJIAJISHU。DUIAOXIANHEJIXIESUNSHANGDEGAOZHILIANGNEIJIANCEGUOCHENG,YINGNENGTIGONGYAOQIUDEXINXI,RUAOXIANDEJIHEXINGZHUANGHESHUJU,ZHEIXIEDOUDUITANCEQIJIXIESUNSHANGDENEIJIANCETICHULEGENGGAODEYAOQIU。

LOUCI(MFL)JISHUYINGYONGYUGUANDAONEIJIANCE,YIYOUCHAOGUO 40 NIANDESHIJIAN,YIBANYONGLAITANCEFUSHIZAOCHENGDEJINSHUSUNSHI,SHIMUQIANZUISHIYIDEFUSHIJIANCEJISHU;DANYOUYUJIXIESUNSHANGCHANSHENGDELOUCIXINHAO,BUNENGHENHAODIPANDUANDE MFL JISHUHENSHAOYONGYUJIANCEJIXIESUNSHANGDAILAIDEQUEXIAN,ZAISHIBIEDISANFANGPOHUAIFANGMIANXIAOGUOBUJIA。LAIZIAOXIANDELOUCIXINHAODEJIESHIKUNNANYOUYIXIAYUANYINZAOCHENG:JIXIESUNSHANGDELOUCIXINHAOZAIJIHEHEYINGLIDEZUOYONGXIASHIZHONGDIEDE;JIXIESUNSHANGQUYUDEYINGLIFENBUSHIFENFUZA,BAOKUOSUXINGBIANXINGHECANYUYINGLI。

捕鱼大作战 YOUYULOUCIJISHUBEIRENWEISHIZUIJUYOUCHENGBENXIAOLVDENEIJIANCEFANGFA。GUANDAOYUNYINGSHANG、GUANLIZHEHEYANFARENYUANDOUXIWANGTIGAOLOUCIJISHUJIANCEJIXIESUNSHANGDELINGMINDU,CONGERSHILOUCITANCEJISHUYOUXIAOYINGYONGYUJIXIESUNSHANGQUEXIANDESHIBIE。MUQIANGAIXIANGGONGZUOYOULEYIXIAXINDEFAZHAN:①DEGUO ROSEN GONGSIKAIFACHUYONGYUNEIJIANCEQIDEXINYIDAIJIHECHUANGANQI,KEYITIGONGGAOJINGDUDEGUANDAONEIBULUNKUODEJIHESHUJU,RUNENGTANCEDAODEZUIXIAOAOXIANSHI 4.47mm(0.176in)。ZHEIZHONGCHUANGANQIJIEHELEFEIJIECHUYUANJULICELIANGFAYUCEJINGQISHOUBEIDEYOUSHI,YUNXUCHUANGANQIZAIGAODONGTAIYUNXINGZAIHEZUOYONGXIAGONGZUO;GAICHUANGANQIYUDAOHANGQI、GAOFENBIANLVLOUCIJIANCEJISHUXIANGJIEHE,TUIJINLEJIXIESUNSHANGJIANCEGONGJUDEFAZHAN。②JIANADA BJ GONGSIKAIZHANLEJIYUSANZHOULOUCIXINHAOSHISHIBIEAOXIANTEXINGDEYANJIU。YINGYONGSANZHOULOUCIGONGJUJIANCEXIAOAOXIAN(SHENDUSHAOYUZHIJING 1%)DEJISHUYIJINGYOULEZHONGDAJINZHAN,QIJIANCENENGLIYIZAIXIANCHANGWAJUEZHONGDEDAOLEYANZHENG。GAIXIANGJISHUMUQIANJUYOUGUOJILINGXIANSHUIPING。

捕鱼大作战 4)JINSHUSUNSHIJIANCEJISHU:GUOQUJINIANLI,RENMENZHONGDIANGUANZHULEJINSHUFUSHIDEZUIXIAOJIANCESHENDU;ERXIANZAIDUIYUJINSHUSUNSHIPUBIANGUANZHUDE,SHIDUIFUSHIYINQIDEJINSHUSUNSHIDETANCE、DINGWEIHECHICUNCEDING。ZAOQIDELOUCIJIANCEGONGJUJINNENGTANCEDAMIANJIDEFUSHIHUOFUSHIQUN。YOUYUJIANCEQISHEJI、CHUANGANQI、DIANZIXUEHEQITAYAOSUDEGAIJIN,XINXINGJIANCEGONGJUYIJINGJUYOUTANCEXIAOQUEXIANNENGLI,YUCEDEQUEXIANCHICUNYEGENGJIAJINGQUE,BINGTONGGUODUOZHONGTUJINGJINXINGLEHENDADEGAIJIN,RUDADUOSHUDIFENBIANLVJIANCEQI,CELIANGLOUCICHANGJINZAIYIGEDANYIFANGXIANG,XIANZAIGAOFENBIANLVJIANCEQIDEJIANCEFANWEISHILIANGGEHUOSHISANGEXIANGHUCHUIZHIDEFANGXIANG,QUYANGLV、TEDINGJULISHOUJIDESHUJUYANGBENHESHIJIANJIANGEYEDADAZENGDA。

JIANADA BJ GONGSIYINGYONGSANZHOULOUCIJISHUDEZHOUXIANGCICHANG MFL JIANCEQIYANJIU,YOULEYIDINGDEJINZHAN。ZAISANZHOUCHUANGANQIZHONG,YOUSANGEDANDUDE、HUXIANGCHUIZHIDECHUANGANFANGXIANG;ZHOUXIANGCHUANGANQIJILUYANGUANDAODEPINGXINGFANGXIANG;JINGXIANGCHUANGANQIJILUGUANDAOCHUIZHIFANGXIANG;HUANXIANGCHUANGANQIJILUYUANZHOUFANGXIANG。DISIGECHUANGANQICHENGWEIXUANZHUANCHUANGANQI,BEIYONGLAISHIBIENEIWAIBUDEQUBIE,YEBANGZHUSHIBIEHEJINXINGTEZHENGFENLEI。ZHEILEIGAOFENBIANLVLOUCIJIANCEQI,KESHIBIEDEJINSHUSUNSHITEZHENGYOUJINSHUZENGZHANGHEJINSHUSUNSHI、FUZAFUSHIQINGKUANG、YANZHANGDEZHOUXIANGQUEXIAN、ZHIZAOQUEXIAN、JIANSHEQUEXIAN、HANFENGLIEWEN、AOXIAN、ZHEZHOU、YUANZAO、YUANZHOULIEWENDENG。YIBANRENWEIAOXIAN、ZHEZHOUDENGGUANDAOAOXIANWUFABEI MFL SHIBIE,YINCILOUCIJISHUZHONGGUANYUFEIFUSHITEZHENGDEJINYIBUYANJIUBIANDEGENGJIAZHONGYAO,ZHEIRENGSHIMUQIANLOUCIJISHUYANJIUDEFANGXIANG

5)NEIJIANCEJISHUCUNZAIDEWENTIJIFAZHANFANGXIANG:JINGGUODUONIANYINGYONG,NEIJIANCEJISHUYIJINGCHENGWEIPINGJIAGUANDAOQUEXIANHEQUEBAOGUANDAOWANZHENGXINGDESHOUXUANJISHU。GAOFENBIANLVDENEIJIANCEQI(JIHE、FUSHI、LIEWEN)KETANCE、DINGWEI、CELIANGBINGXIANSHIGUANBISHANGDEYICHANG。ZHEIXIEYICHANGKEYIBIAOSHIWEIJIHEBIANXING(AOXIAN、YUANZAO、TUOYUANBIANXING、ZHEZHOU、WANQU)、FUSHI、LIEWENHEQITAQUEXIAN。DANSHI、YANJIUSHIJIESHANGZUIJINFASHENGDEWEIXIANYETIHETIANRANQIGUANDAOSHIGU,QUEFAXIANYIXIENEIJIANCEJIELUNWEIKEJIXUYUNXINGDEGUANDAO,ZAINEIJIANCEHOUDE 6~12 GEYUENEIJIUFASHENGLESHIXIAOSHIGU。

捕鱼大作战 2005 NIAN,MEIGUOGUANDAOANQUANBANGONGSHIFABUDESHUJUBIAOMING,ZHEIXIEJINGGUOJIANCEQUEHENKUAICHUXIANGUZHANGDEGUANDAO,SHIXIAOYUANYINZHONG,QUEXIANWEIBEITANCEDAODEZHAN 51%;DUIQUEXIANTEZHENGDIGUDEZHAN 32.3%;CUOWUBIANSHIDEZHAN 16.7%。ZHEIZHONGXIANXIANGDUINEIJIANCEQIJIXIANGYINGDENEIJIANCEQIJISHUTICHULEZHIYI,WENXIANZHICHULENEIJIANCEQIMIANLINDEWENTIHEFAZHANDEWENTI。

NEIJIANCEQIYIJINGCONGCHUNCUIDEJIANCEGONGJU,ZHUANBIANWEIYIGEJINGQUEDICELIANGSHOUDUAN,MUQIANMIANLINDEWENTIRUXIA:①GUANDAOCELIANGDEMUBIAOCHUZAIYIGEFUZA、LIANXU、BIANHUADENEIBUHUANJING(YALI、WENDU、FUSHIDENG)HEWAIBUHUANJING(ZHOUWEITURANG、FUSHI、DISANFANGGANRAODENG)。②NEIJIANCEQIYUNXINGGUOCHENGZHONG,QIGUANJIANBUJIANKENENGHUISHIXIAO,DANWUFAJISHIGENGHUAN。③ZHINENGJIANCEQIDEYUNXINGCANSHUBUWENDING,RUSULV、CICHANG、JIANCEQIJIANCHUANGANQIGUZHANG。④SHIJICUNZAIDEQUEXIANSHULIANGDAYUBEINEIJIANCEQIJIANCEDAODESHULIANG,QUEXIANDESHIJIDAXIAOYIBANDAYUNEIJIANCEQIJICHUDESHUJU。⑤CHUANGJIANYIGENEIJIANCEFANGFAYUDUIBIBIAOZHUNFEICHANGKUNNAN。

捕鱼大作战 FENXIYISHANGQINGKUANG,NEIJIANCEJISHUYINGGAIZAIYIXIAFANGMIANJINXINGGAIJIN:①XUYAOJINYIBUGAIJINNEIJIANCEQIDEJIBENYUANLIHEJISHU,YIGAIJINXIANYOUNEIJIANCEJISHUCUNZAIDEWEITANCEDAO、DIGUWEIXIANJICUOWUBIANSHIDENGFANGMIANDEXINGNENG。②DUINEIJIANCESHUJUJINXINGZHENGTIDETONGJIFENXI,QUEDINGNEIJIANCEYILOUHECUOWUBIANSHIDEQUEXIANDESHULIANG、CHICUNHEWEIZHI,PINGJIANEIJIANCEQIJIANCEDAODEQUEXIANDESHIJISHULIANGHECHICUN。③DUIGEZHONGNEIJIANCESHUJUDECHAYIJINXINGDUIBIFENXI,YIDUICELIANGCUOWUJINXINGGUINA、YANZHENGJIANCEQI、XIANCHANGHEJISUANJISHUJU。

(5)GONGZUOJIANYI

捕鱼大作战 WANZHENGXINGGUANLISHIBAOZHENGGUANDAOANQUANYUNXINGDEYOUXIAOSHOUDUAN。ZHONGGUOGUANDAOXINGYEYIJINGCHUBUJIANLIQIWANZHENGXINGGUANLIDELINIAN,KAISHIZHIDINGWANZHENGXINGSHISHIJIHUAJIXIANGGUANJISHUBIAOZHUN,BINGYIJINGDUISHANJINGGUANDAO、GUANGDONG LNG GUANDAODENGJINXINGLENEIJIANCESHIJIAN,QUDELELIANGHAODEXIAOGUO。WEILEGENGHAODIKAIZHANWANZHENGXINGGUANLI,XIANJIEHEGUOJISHANGWANZHENGXINGGUANLIDEZUIXINJINZHAN,TICHUYIXIAJIANYI。

捕鱼大作战 1)TIGAODUIZHIJIEPINGJIADEZHONGSHICHENGDU。YOUYUNEIJIANCEJISHUSHIYONGFANWEIDEJUXIANXING,XIANGDANGSHULIANGDEGUANDAOXUYAOTONGGUOZHIJIEPINGJIAJISHUJINXINGWANZHENGXINGPINGJIA。YINGGAIJIAQIANGDUIZHIJIEPINGJIAJISHUDEYANJIU,SHIDANGYINJINZHIJIEPINGJIAJISHU,DUIBUSHIHENEIJIANCEPINGJIADEGUANDAOJINXINGWANZHENGXINGPINGJIA,TIGAOWANZHENGXINGGUANLIJISHUSHUIPING。

2)ZHIDINGBINGJIANDUSHISHIQIANGZHIXINGDEWANZHENGXINGPINGJIAJIHUA。ZAIGUONEIQUEFAQIANGZHIXINGFALVDEQINGKUANGXIA,GEDASHIYOUGONGSIYINGGAIZHIDINGBAOKUOZHIJIEPINGJIAHENEIJIANCEDENGPINGJIAFANGFAZAINEIDEWANZHENGXINGPINGJIAJIHUA,TICHUQIANGZHIXINGYAOQIU,SHIGUANDAOWANZHENGXINGGUANLICONGSHIDIANZHUBUNARUGUIFANHUAGUANLIDEGUIDAO。

3)JIAQIANGXINGYESHUJUKUJIANSHE。ZHUZHONGZHENGGEGUANDAOXINGYEDEGUANDAOSHIXIAODENGSHUJUSHOUJIHEFENXI,WEIWANZHENGXINGGUANLITIGONGCANKAO;ZAIKAIZHANNEIJIANCESHIJIANDEJICHUSHANG、JIAQIANGDUINEIJIANCESHUJUHEJIEGUODEDUIBIYANJIU,TIGAODUINEIJIANCEJISHUDERENSHI。

4)JIADADUIWANZHENGXINGGUANLIJISHUDEYANJIULIDU。MIQIEGENZONGGUOWAIZUIXINJISHUFAZHANZHUANGTAI,YOUJIHUADIKAIZHANZHIJIEPINGJIAJISHUHENEIJIANCEJISHUDEYANJIU,JIADAYANJIUTOURU,PEIYUJUYOUZIZHUZHISHICHANQUANDEPINGJIAJISHU。

1-2 十一五期间中国钢管市场有哪些需求?

DA:SHIWUQIJIANZHONGGUOGANGGUANSHICHANGXIAOFEIJIEGOUDEBIANHUA,FANYINGLESHIYIWUQIJIANZHONGGUOGANGGUANFAZHANDEJINGJIBEIJING,FENXILEZHONGGUOGANGGUANSHICHANGZHUYAOYONGHUDEYAOQIU,CONGHONGGUANCENGMIANDUIGANGGUANHEGANGCAISHICHANGDEDONGTAIBILIGUANXIJINXINGLEPINGGU,DUISHIYIWUQIJIANZHONGGUOGANGGUANSHICHANGXUQIUJINGXINGLEYUCE。

捕鱼大作战 (1)SHIWUQIJIANZHONGGUOGANGGUANYEDEFAZHANQINGKUANG

十五期间,中国钢管产量由 1153.10×104t/a 上升到 2614.11×104t/a,五年间上升 1461.10×104t/a,年均增加 292.2×104捕鱼大作战t/a。由于产能不断增加,从十五初期的生产能力不足,已转为生产能力过剩。中国钢管十五时期的产量和构成比例见表 1-2。

表 1-2 中国钢管十五时期的产量和构成比例
年份 焊管/104t/a 无缝管/104t/a 钢管总产量/104t/a 钢材总产量/104t/a 钢管产量占钢材产量的比例(%) 焊管占钢管的比例(%) 无缝钢管占钢管的比例(%)
2001 640.36 512.70 1153.06 16170.00 7.13 55.54 44.46
2002 830.59 610.00 1440.59 19404.00 7.42 57.66 42.34
2003 1030.77 733.90 1764.67 24082.00 7.33 58.41 41.59
2004 1301.26 848.05 2149.31 29903.00 7.19 60.54 39.46
2005 1567.06 1047.05 2614.11 37117.02 7.04 59.95 40.05

由表 1-2 可知,五年来,钢管产量和表观消费量平均以 22.46% 和 19.77% 的幅度高速增长。2003 年以后,钢管自给率逐渐呈供大于求的局面,即自给率大于百分之百进口管。中国钢铁工业协会指出:管材在钢材表观消费总量中的比例,2000 年为 6.61%,2005 年为 6.42%,变化不大。其中,无缝钢管由 2000 年的净出口 3×104t,转为 2005 年净出口 71.4×104t;焊接钢管由 2000 年的净出口 3×104t,转为 2005 年净出口 124.5×104t。管材在国内市场的国产化率已达 95.5%。

SHIWUQIJIANZHONGGUOGANGGUANYEDEFAZHANQINGKUANGBIAOMING,ZHONGGUOGANGGUANYEYIJINRUGONGDAYUQIUDEXINJIEDUAN。ZHEIJISHIYIWUQIJIANZHONGGUOGANGGUANYEDEFAZHANYIXINDEQISHI。

捕鱼大作战 (2)SHIYIWUQIJIANGANGGUANSHICHANGXUQIUFENXIHEPINGGU

1)SHIYIWUQIJIANZHONGGUOGANGGUANYEFAZHANDEJINGJIBEIJING:CHUYUZHONGGUOGONGYEHUAYOUZHONGQIJIEDUANXIANGHOUQIJIEDUANDEGUODUSHIQI,SHIZHONGGUOGANGGUANYEFAZHANDEGUAIDIAN。ZHEIYIWEIZHEGANGGUANCHANLIANGHEXIAOFEILIANGYOUGAOSUZENGZHANG,GUODUDAOCHIXU、KUAISUZENGZHANG,GANGGUANYEFAZHANDEZENGSUFANGMAN。DANGWOGUOGONGYEHUAJIBENSHIXIANSHI,GANGGUANCHANLIANGHEXIAOFEICHANLIANGJIANGDAODALISHIFENGZHI。ZHEIGESHIQI,ZHONGGUOJINGJIRENGRANZHIYAOSHIKAOTOUZIHEWAIMAOLADONG,YOUCUFANGXINGZENGZHANGFANGSHIXIANGJIYUEXINGZENGZHANGFANGSHIGUODU。SHIYIWUQIJIANZHONGGUOGANGGUANYEJIUCHUZAIZHEIYANGLIANGGEGUODUSHIQIDEFAZHANJIEDUAN。

十一五期间规划经济发展的态势是又好又快,其着力点是创新、节能和环保。至于 GDP 增长率,十一五前两年(2006 年和 2007年)预计分别是 10.7% 和 8%。平均为 9% 左右。预计后三年可能是 7.5%~8%。十一五期间 GDP 增长率平均约为 8%。中国钢铁协会预测 2010 年我国粗钢消费达到 4.9×108t,钢材消费达到 4.7×108捕鱼大作战t。这个预测是在总结十五期间预测的经验教训基础上得出的。

2)十一五期间钢管市场的需求评价:十一五期间,中国能源需求强劲是中国钢管行业发展的直接动力。预测 2010 年将消费(25~33)×108t 标煤,十一五期间能源建设将投资 3.5 万亿元。到 2020 年,我国能源工业累计投资将达到 10 万亿元,从 2005 年起,每年投资 7000 多亿元。其中 2020 年煤炭生产能力将达到 28×108t,年均投资 700 亿元;2010年石油产量将达到 1.8×108t,年均投资 500 亿元;2010 年天然气产量达到 1100×108m³,年均投资 300 亿元;2010 年电力装机,包括火电、水电、喝点、天然气发电、风电等新能源发电达到 7×108捕鱼大作战Kw,年均投资 5000 多亿元。

①煤炭用钢管。煤炭用钢管的数量比较大,用途也比较广。按钢管占 20% 来估计,支护用钢管 2006~2010 年共用 990×104t;矿用带式输送机拖辊等设备和排水、通风用钢管 130×104t。由此可见,煤炭用钢管共计约 1120×104t。

捕鱼大作战 ②SHIYOUTIANRANQIGANGGUAN。SHIYOUTIANRANQIYONGGANGGUANDEZHUTISHICHANGSHIZHONGSHIYOU、ZHONGSHIHUAHEZHONGHAIYOUSANJIASHIYOUJUTOU,QIYONGTUZHUYAOSHIYOUJINGGUAN、YOUQIZHANGSHUGUANXIANGANGGUAN。

2006~2010 年共计需油井管 1800×104t。石油行业十一五期间油井管和管线钢管用量之和约 3800×104t。

③化工用钢管。十一五期间无缝钢管、焊管等共计 900×104t。

④电力用钢管,包括火电用钢管(蒸汽管、高压给水管等)、核电用管(传热管)、水电用钢管(焊接钢管、压力管)、风电用钢管(焊管)、电网用钢管(输电塔一般用角钢改为用焊管)。以上电力用钢管 2006~2010 年总计需求量 575×104t。

⑤钢结构用钢管。钢结构的发展同城市化有密切的关系。华东、中南仍是我国钢结构消费的主要区域,西北、西南地区的消费比重呈增长势头。十一五期间,中国城镇化率将由 2005 年的 43%,上升到 2010 年的 47%,农村人口转移到城镇约 8545×104 人,年需建筑用钢约 2655×104t。其中,东南部 844×104t,中部 1046×104t,西部 765×104t。五年共需建筑用钢材约 1.3275×108t。

国内一般以上的钢材用于建筑行业,推算出 2006~2010 年,钢结构用钢管需要 600~700×104t。

⑥房地产用钢管。房地产用钢管包括三个方面:一是钢结构,见⑤中分析;二是城市地下给排水、热力、通风管道;三是住宅用来水镀锌钢管。十一五期间城市地下水及热力管网,年需钢管平均约为 50×104t;地面房屋用镀锌钢管平均约需 800×104t;十一五期间房地产用钢管量约 4250×104t。

⑦汽车工业用钢管。2005 年我国汽车产量为 500×104 辆,2006 年达到 650×104 辆,2007 年可达 850×104 辆,2010 年将超过 900×104 辆。关于汽车用刚量的评估,按 2005 年汽车用钢管 24×104t(其中无缝管 16.91×104t,焊管 7.09×104t)来推算,十一五期间汽车用钢管量约 160×104t。

⑧造船工业用钢管。目前世界造船市场处于发展的高峰期。在世界海运贸易增长的推动下,尤其是在中国,石油、矿石进口持续快速增长和集装箱货运增速上升的推动下,2005 年我国制船行业产量突破 1222×104t 载重吨,同比增长 41.86%,占世界产量的 18.2%,2006 年造船产量为 1500×104t 载重吨,用钢材 600×104t,其中管材占 7%,约为 42×104t。2006~2010 年我国造船达到每年平均 830×104t 载重吨,总计为 4152×104t 载重吨。按 2006 年船用钢管量为基数,推算十一五期间我国造船工业用钢管量为 250×104t。

⑨集装箱行业用钢管。我国集装箱行业在产销上已连续 14 年居世界第 1 位,生产集装箱所用钢材为耐候钢,主要有热轧薄板(1.6~6.0mm)、型钢和焊管。预计 十一五期间集装箱需求焊管将达 105×104t。

捕鱼大作战 ⑩JIXIEGONGYEYONGGANGGUAN。ZHONGGUOJIXIEGONGYEYOUPANGDADENEIXUZHICHI,TONGSHIQIYOUMINGXIANDEGUOJIBIJIAOYOUSHI,SHIJINHOUGUOJIZHONGDIANZHENXINGDECHANYE。DAO 2010 NIANJIANGTOUZI 3555 YIYUAN,ZHANGUOMINJINGJIZONGTOUZIDE 4%,ZENGZHANGSUDUWEI 47%,CHANXIAOZONGTICHENGPINGWENFAZHANQUSHI。

捕鱼大作战 JIXIEGONGYEDEJICHUANGGONGYE,OU、YA、MEISANZUDINGLI,OUZHOUSHIQIANG,DE、RI、MEIZHENGXIONG。JIXIEGONGYEFAZHANRUHE,BIAOZHIZHEYIGEGUOJIAJISHUSHUIPINGDEGAODI。

JIXIEGONGYEGANGCAIYONGLIANGDEZHUYAOXINGYEYOU:ZHONGXINGKUANGSHANJIXIE、GONGCHENGJIXIE、TONGYONGJIXIE、NONGYEJIXIE、SHIYOUJIHUAGONGJIXIE。CIWAI,HAIYOULINGBUJIANZHIZAOYE,ZENGSUWEI 20%;ZHILENGJIKONGDIAOJIXIEZHIZAOYE,ZENGSUWEI 15%~20%;HUANBAOJIXIEZHIZAOYEZENGSUWEI 17%;WENHUABANGONGJIXIEZHIZAOYEZENGSUWEI 15%;SHIPINJIBAOZHUANGJIXIEZHIZAOYEZENGSUWEI 10%~15%;YEYA、QIDONG、MIFENGJIANZHIZAOYEZENGSUWEI 10%~15%;YINSHUAJIXIEZHIZAOYEZENGSUWEI 10%;ZHOUCHENGZHIZAOYEZENGSUWEI 8%~10%;NEIRANJIZHIZAOYEZENGSUWEI 5%~8%;GONGCHENGJIXIEZHIZAOYEZENGSUWEI 5%。

据不完全统计,机械行业 2004 年消耗钢材 4500×104t,2005 年消耗钢材 5200×104t。2006 年机械工业产销同比增长 15%,由此,预测十一五期间机械工业用钢量为 2200×104t 左右。

机械制造业用管以大中直径、中厚壁碳结钢和低合金钢管、无缝钢管为主。用无缝钢管代替实心段坯制造缸、筒、轴、辊、滚筒、轴承、管模等中空体和结构体,可节约钢材 20%~30%。又如压力容器、高压气瓶年需无缝钢管约 10×104t。机械用管中,大中直径无缝钢管约占 30%。近几年,年消耗无缝钢管(150~160)×104捕鱼大作战t,约占无缝钢管消费的 15%。美国的机械结构管消费比例,1997 年为 29.4%,2002 年保持在 24%。随着我国机械装备业的发展,我国钢管用于机械结构管的比例还会增加,将达到 20% 左右。

捕鱼大作战 ⑪QINGGONGYEYONGGANGGUAN。QINGGONGYESHIWOGUOJINGCHUKOULIANGJIAODADEXINGYE,2005 NIANCHUKOUSHUNCHAWEI 1400~1500 YIYUAN,ZENGZHANGFUDUJIAODA。YOUYUGUOJIJINGZHENGJILIE,XUYAOGANGCAIPINZHONGSHENGJIHUANDAI。

轻工业用钢管涉及自行车、影剧院、体育场馆、会议厅设备(座椅等)、健身器材、家电、家具、医疗机械、小五金、旅游用品等。2005 年自行车用钢材 185×104t,其中焊管约 110×104t,由此,预测十一五期间轻工业用钢管约 880×104t。

⑫铁路(车辆)用钢管。十一五期间将加大综合交通运输体系投资力度投资总额 65219 亿元增长 18.6%。尽管如此,与国际交通运输发达国家相比,仍由较大差距。从路网密度来看,美国每万平方千米国土面积就有铁路 200km,印度有 211km。我国 2005 年年底全国铁路总营业里程为 7.5×104km,每万平方千米地面积铁路仅为 78.11km。

十一五期间国家将继续加大铁路网建设,将重新线 1.7×104km,相当于八五、九五和十五总和的 1.3 倍。铁路车辆由于主要干线提速,需要新购机车 7300 台,到 2010 年需新购货车 22×104 辆,新购客车 2.6×104 辆。因此,未来几年的铁路车辆用钢市场潜力巨大。

火车车厢用钢管主要包括三个方面:一是车厢钢结构件,例如用方矩形钢管制作箱梁;二是配管;三是为了提速、减重和安全,用锻轧的空心轴代替实心轴。目前年需低和金钢车轴(15~20)×104t。

综上所述,十一五期间铁路(车辆)用钢管约 200×104t。

⑬港口建设用钢管。我国钢铁工业正在向沿海地区发展,如鞍钢、首钢、唐钢在沿海地区建设钢铁钢铁大厂,配套的港口建设正在发展之中。港口建设和跨海大桥都需要大量打桩用钢管。例如,杭州湾跨海大桥用的打桩规格为 ø1016mm×16mm,管长 72m,钢管用量很客观。螺旋焊管用于桩管较合适,一部分直缝埋弧焊管也可用于桩管。同时,铁路建设中桥梁也很多,以京沪高速铁路为例,就有 11 座特大桥需要大量打桩用管。预计十一五期间港头、码头、桥梁需要用作桩管的钢管月 250×104t。

十一五期间我国钢管出口量预计约 3000×104t。

1-3 俄罗斯 ø1420mm 直缝焊管生产线如何?

DA:ELUOSILIANHEGANGTIEGUFENYOUXIANGONGSIWEIKESONGGANGTIECHANGJIANCHENGDE ø1420mm ZHIFENGMAIHUHANGUANSHENGCHANXIAN,ZHUYAOSHEBEIYOUDEGUO SMS MEER GONGSITIGONG,CAIYONG JCO CHENGXINGGONGYI,KESHENGCHANDANHANFENGHESHUANGHANFENGGANGGUAN。YOUXIANBIANJI、YUWANJI、BUJINCHENGXINGJI、YUHANJI、SHUIYASHIYANJI、WUSUNJIANCEDENGSHEBEIZUCHENG。SHENGCHANDE ø1420mm HANGUANLIXUEXINGNENGJIANCESHIYANBIAOMING,WANQUANMANZUYOUQISHUSONGGUANXIANYAOQIU。

表 1-3 不同钢级和管径对应钢管最大的壁厚(单位:mm)
钢管直径/mm 钢级
K52 K55 K60 K65 K80
530 33 30 27 25 21
630 38 36 33 30 24
420 41 39 35 33 26
820 41 41 40 39 30
1020 45 44 42 40 32
1220 48 47 46 42 40
1420 50 49 48 44 40

ø1420mm 焊管生产线大口径焊管的生产能力为 40×104捕鱼大作战t/a,其主要生产设备如下:

1)XIANBIANJI。WEIHOUXUHANJIEBAOZHENGZUIJINGQUEDEBANBIANJIHECANSHU。

捕鱼大作战 2)YUWANJI。WANLI 24MN,KETONGSHICONGQUANZHANGGANGBANLIANGCEZHUDUANWANQUBANBIAN。

3)BUJINCHENGXINGJI(JCO)。WANLI 65MN,KETONGSHIZAIGUANPIQUANCHANGFANWEINEIDEDUOGEWANQUDIANSHANG,JIANGGEPIDUANYUWANXIANGGUANPIZHONGYANG,ZUIZHONGXINGCHENGDUANMIAN。

捕鱼大作战 4)YUHANJI。ZAIZHENGSHIHANJIEQIANJINXINGBAOHUQITIDINGWEIHANJIE。

5)ZIDONGHANJI。CAIYONGMAIHUDUOHUHANJIEGONGYIHANJIEGONGYI(3~5GEDIANHU),JINXINGNEIWAIHANFENGDEZIDONGHANJIE。YEYAKUOJINGJI(KUOJINGTOUKUOZHANGLIWEI 21GN),KEZAIQUANGUANZHANGFANWEINEIZHUJIANJINXINGGANGGUANKUOJING、DINGJING,BAOZHENGGANGGUANDEJIHECHICUNJINGDUBINGXIAOCHUNEIYINGLI。

捕鱼大作战 6)SHUIYASHIYANJI。ZUIDASHIYANYALIWEI 55MPa。

捕鱼大作战 7)WUSUNJIANCESHEBEI。YONGYUHANFENGHEGUANTIZIDONGCHAOSHENGBOJIANCE、SHOUDONGCHAOSHENGBOJIANCE、X SHEXIANJIANCE、CIFENJIANCEDENG。

捕鱼大作战 2005 NIAN 4 YUE,WEIKESONGGANGTIECHANGDISIGANGGUANCHANGZHEITAOXINSHENGCHANXIANTOUCHAN。ZAIZHIZAODAKOUJINGHOUBIGUANSHI,CAIYONGLEXIEWEIER(BEIFANGGANGGONGSI)、Dillinger(DEGUO)、Posco(HANGUO)DENGGONGSISHENGCHANDEKUANHOUREYABAN,BINGYUZHEIXIEGONGSIQIANDINGLEZHANGQIGONGHUOHETONG。ø1420mm GANGGUANDELIXUEXINGNENGJIANBIAO 1-4.CESHIGANGGUANDEBIHOUWEI 18.7mm HE 15.7mm,QIREYABANFENBIEYOUELUOSIXIEWEIERGONGSIHEDEGUO Dillinger GANGCHANGGONGHUO。

表 1-4 ø1420mm 钢管的力学性能
板材供货厂 测试管数量/根 壁厚/mm 刚拉强度/MPa 屈服强度/MPa 屈强比(%) 伸长率(%)
最小值 最大值 平均值 最小值 最大值 平均值 最小值 最大值 平均值 最小值 最大值 平均值
谢维尔钢公司 47 18.7 593 677 621.7 515 612 548 65 80 68.3 20 27 22.7
Dillinger 42 15.7 609 693 649.3 488 625 539.9 78 90 83.1 20 23.5 20.9

捕鱼大作战 2006 NIAN 4~5 YUE,ELUOSITIANRANQIKEXUEJISHUYANJIUYUAN,DUIGAICHANG 1420 JIZUSHENGCHANDE X70 JIGUANXIANGANGGUAN ø1420mm×26.7mm HE K60 JI ø1020mm×17mm DANHANFENGGANGGUANFENBIEJINXINGLESHIYAN。

SHIYANZHONG,ZAIGANGGUANSHIYANGBIAOMIANZHIZAOLERENGONGQUEXIAN,RANHOUZAIYEYASHIYANJISHANGANYAOQIUJINXINGSHIYAN,BINGDUIGANGGUANDERENXINGJINXINGLEPINGJIA。

SHIYANJIEGUOBIAOMING,SUOSHENGCHANDEGANGGUANKEYONGYUSHIGONGWENDU -60℃,YUNXINGWENDU -20℃,GONGZUOYALIWEI 9.8MPa DEYOUQISHUSONGGUANDAODEFUSHEHEDAXIU。ZHEIYIJIELUNYIDEDAOQUANETIANRANQIKEXUEJISHUYANJIUYUANHEQUANEGANGTIEKEXUEJISHUYANJIUYUANDEZHENGSHIRENKE。CIWAI,TIANRANQIGONGYEGONGSIYANSHOUWEIYUANHUIZAI 2005 NIAN 7 YUE 14 RI 1 HAOHUIYIJILUZHONG,YEDUIGAICHANG ø1420mm×26.7mm GANGGUANDEYOULIANGXINGNENGJIYULEKENDING。

捕鱼大作战 XIANYIZHIDINGCHUTIANRANQIGONGYEJISHIYOUSHUSONGGUANDAOYONG“DAKOUJINGZHIFENGHANGUANSHENGCHANJISHUTIAOJIAN”。WEIKESONGGANGTIECHANGYIKAISHIDUISHIYOUTIANRANQIGONGSIGONGYINGZHEIZHONGGANGGUAN,BINGDUISHIYANSHEBEIJINXINGLEGENGXIN,YIBIANDUIGANGJI K70(X70),BIHOU 50mm DEDAKOUJINGZHIFENGHANGUANDELIXUEXINGNENGJINXINGKEKAODEJIANYAN。XINTIANDEJIANYANSHEBEIYOU Zwick GONGSITIGONG,BAOKUOLASHENSHIYANJI、LUOCHUISILIESHIYANJIHECHONGJISHIYANJI。

CHULE ø1420mm DAKOUJINGZHIFENGHANGUANSHANGCHANXIANWAI,WEIKESONGGANGCHANGHAIJIANLILEGANGGUANWAIFANGFUSHENGCHANXIAN,NEIFANGFUSHENGCHANXIANYU 2006 NIAN 10YUE TOUCHAN。ZHEILIANGTIAOGANGGUANNEI、WAIFANGFUSHENGCHANXIANDESHEBEIJUNYOUHELAN Bauhuis GONGSITIGONG。

LIANHEGANGTIEGONGSIWEIKESONGGANGTIECHANG,SHIDIYIGEPILIANGSHENGCHANCHU ø1420mm DAKOUJINGZHIFENGHANGUANDEELUOSIZHIGUANQIYE。ELUOSIBADUNHANJIEYANJIUSUO,KUANGSHANJISHUJIANDUJU、ZHONGXINGJIXIECHANG、WUKELANGUOLIHEISEYEJINSHEJIYUANDENGDANWEIDEZHUANJIAHEYIXIEWAIGUOZHUANJIA,CANYULE ø1420mm DAKOUJINGDANZHIFENGHANGUANDEGONGYISHEJI、SHEBEIKAIFAJITOUCHANDIAOSHI。

捕鱼大作战 MUQIANGAICHANGFAZHANQUSHILIANGHAO,JINGYINGZHUANGKUANGWENDING,TOUZIZHONGDIANXIANGZHETIGAOSHENGCHANLVHECHANPINZHILIANGFANGMIANFAZHAN。ZHEIXIEJIANGSHIRENMENJIANXIN,WEIKESONGGANGTIECHANGZAIHULIHEZUODEJICHUSHANG,NENGGOUWEISHIYOUTIANRANQIXINGYETIGONGDALIANGYOUZHIDEGUANXIANGANGGUAN,BINGYIZHUNBEICANYU“EBEI—OUZHOUTIANRANQIGUANDAO”HE“DONGXIBOLIYA—TAIPINGYANGTIANRANQIGUANDAO”DEJIANSHE。

1-4 阀门用金属波纹管的选型与应用如何?

捕鱼大作战 DA:JIESHAOJINSHUBOWENGUANZAIJIEZHIFA、ZHAFA、DIAOJIEFA、ANQUANFAHEQIUFADENGFAMENZHONGDEYINGYONG、SHEJIHEXUANXING。DUIFAMENYONGJINSHUBOWENGUANZAISHIYONGZHONGCHUXIANDECHUXIANDEWENTIJICHULEJIEJUEBANFA。

(1)GAINIAN:SUIZHESHIJIEFANWEINEIHUANBAOYISHIDEZENGQIANG,RENMENDUIFAMENDEMIFENGYAOQIUYUELAIYUEGAO,TEBIESHIGAIZHUANGZHIYIJISHIYOUHEHUAGONGDENGTESHUCHANGHE,YAOQIUFAMENBIXUSHIXIAN“LINGXIELOU”。YINCI,SULIAN、DEGUO、MEIGUOHERIBENDENGGUOJIALVXIANJIANGJINSHUBOWENGUANYINGYONGYUFAMENLINGYU,SHIBOWENGUANFAMENZUOWEIYIGEXINCHANPINSHOUXIANZAIHANGKONG、HANGTIAN、JIANCHUANHEHEGONGYEDENGJUNGONGLINGYUDEDAOYINGYONG,BINGXUNSUZAISHIYOUHEHUAGONGDENGXINGYEDEYITUIGUANG。

JINSHUBOWENGUANDEZUOYONGZHUYAOSHISHIXIANCELIANG、LIANJIE、ZHUANHUAN、BUCHANG、GELI、MIFENGHEJIANZHENDENGGONGNENG。ZAIBOWENGUANJIEZHIFAHEZHAFAZHONGDEZUOYONGZHIYAOSHIGELI、MIFENGHEBUCHANGGONGNENG,ZAIZILISHIDIAOJIEFAZHONG,HAIYUDANHUANGPEITAOQIDAOSHUCHULIHEKAIQUGUANBIFAMENDEZUOYONG。

捕鱼大作战 YONGYUBOWENGUANFAMENDEJINSHUBIWENGUANZHIYAOYOUYEYACHENGXINGHEHANJIECHENGXINGLIANGZHONG,SHIGENJUSHIJISHIYONGDEFAMENFATIGAODU、WEIYILIANG、NAIYANENGLIYIJIGANGDUYAOQIUZONGHEKAOLVXUANZEHEZHONGXINGSHIDEJINSHUBOWEN。JINSHUBOWENGUANDECAILIAOZHUYAOSHIAOSHITIBUXIUGANGYIJIGAOWENHEJINGANGDENG,CAILIAODEXUANZEZHUYAOSHIGENJUFAMENSHIJISHIYONGJIEZHIFUSHIXINGHESHIYONGWENDUJUEDINGDE。

捕鱼大作战 YOUYUJINNIANLAIGUONEIFAMENXINGYEFAZHANFEICHANGXUNSU,RUHEZAIBOWENGUANFAMENSHEJISHIXUANZEHESHIDEJINSHUBOWENGUANCHENGWEIXINGYESHANGPOQIEXUYAOJIEJUEDEWENTI。

(2)SHUYU:ZAIDUIJINSHUBOWENGUANSHEJIXUANXINGSHI,SHOUXIANYAOMINGQUEJINSHUBOWENGUANDEXINGYESHUYU。

1)BOWENGUAN:YIZHONGDANXING、BOBI、YOUDUOGEHENGXIANGBOWENDEGUANQIAOLINGJIAN。

2)BOWENGUANZUJIAN:YOULIANGGEHUOLIANGGEYISHANGLINGJIANZUCHENG,QIZHONGZHIYISHIBOWENGUAN,BOWENGUANSHIYIGEHUODUOGECHUANLIAN,QITASHIFALANDENGPEIJIAN。

3)BIHOU:CHENGXINGBOWENGUANDEYUANSHIJINSHUGUANDEGUANBIHOUDU,DUIDUOCENGBOWENGUANZESHIGECENGBIHOUDEZONGHE。

捕鱼大作战 4)XINGCHENG:YIYUANSHIZHANGDUWEIJIDIAN,BOWENGUANYASUOWEIYIYULASHENWEIYIZHIHE。

捕鱼大作战 5)NIUQU:ZHANGBOWENGUANJINXINGZHOUXIANGYASUOSHICHANSHENGDEZHUSHIWEN。

6)GONGCHENGYALI:YUBOWENGUANJIXIEQIANGDUYOUGUANDESHEJIJIDINGYALI。

捕鱼大作战 7)GONGCHENGZAIHE:ZHENGCHANGGONGZUOTIAOJIANXIAYUNXUDEZUIDAZAIHEHUOMANLIANGCHENGZHI。TONGCHANGSHIYUQISHEJIZHI。CHAOZAIZAIHEYIBANXIANDINGZAIEDINGZAIHEDE 125%~150%。

捕鱼大作战 8)EDINGWEIYI:EDINGZAIHEXIAYINQIDEWEIYI,SHIZHENGCHANGSHIYONGTIAOJIANXIAYUNXUCHANSHENGDEGONGZUOWEIYI。

9)BOWENGUANGANGDU:SHIBOWENGUANCHANSHENGDANWEIWEIYISUOXUYAODELI,SHEJIJISUANDECHUDEGANGDUCHENGWEIGONGCHENGGANGDUHUOEDINGGANGDU。YIBANQINGKUANG,GONGCHENGGANGDUBUZHIJIESHOUYONGSHIJIZHI,ERSHICHANPINYUANXINGJINGGUOCESHIHOUDEXIUZHENGZHI。

10)YICIXUNHUAN:BOWENGUANSUIFAGANCONGQUANKAIDAOQUANBIZAIDAOQUANKAIDEYUNDONGGUOCHENG。

捕鱼大作战 11)XUNHUANSHOUMING:BOWENGUANZAIGUIDINGYALI、WENDUHEZHOUXIANGXINGCHENGXIAWANGFUYUNDONGERBUPOHUANDEZUIDAXUNHUANCISHU。XIANGTONGCHANPINDESHOUMINGYUBOWENGUANGONGZUOZHUANGTAI、XUNHUANCISHU、PINLV、YALIHEWENDUDENGYOUGUAN。

捕鱼大作战 12)YOUXIAOMIANJI:DANXINGYUANJIANZAIDANWEIYALIZUOYONGXIA,WEIYIWEILINGSHIZHUANHUANDEJIZHONGLIDEDAXIAO。DANYOUXIAOMIANJISUIYALIZENGJIAERBIANHUA,YINCIJUYOUBUHENGDINGXING,ZAILIPINGHENGSHIYIBIAOZHONG,YAOPEIDUISHAIXUAN,ZUODAOYOUXIAOMIANJIJINLIANGYIZHI。

(3)JIEGOU

1)U 形波纹管:常用 U 形波纹管结构如图 1-1 所示。波纹管端部接口形式如图 1-2 所示。接口表示方法为外配合用 W(图 1-1a 中的 d1 尺寸)、沿波切边用 QD(图 1-1a 中 D2 尺寸)、内配合用 N(图 1-1b 中 D1 尺寸)。推荐采用图 1-2a、b、c 端部接口形式。

图 1-1 常用波纹管结构要素
图 1-1 常用波纹管结构要素

图 1-2 波纹管端部接口形式
图 1-2 波纹管端部接口形式

2)BOWENGUANZUJIANDIANXINGJIEGOU:BAOWENGUANZUJIANDIANXINGJIEGOURUTU 1-3 SUOSHI。

图 1-3 波纹管组件典型结构
捕鱼大作战 图 1-3 波纹管组件典型结构

(4)XUANXING

1)BOWENGUANFAMENDIANXINGJIEGOU:YINGYONGBOWENGUANZUJIANSHIWEIFAGANHEFATIGONGYILIUTIZHIJIANTIGONGYIGEKEZHOUXIANGBIANXINGDEJINSHUGETAO,XINGCHENGDONGMIFENG,YIXIAOCHUFAGANCHUDEXIELOU。ZHUANGYOUBOWENGUANZUJIANDEFAMENDIANXINGJIEGOURUTU 1-4 SUOSHI。

图 1-4 装有波纹管组件的阀门典型阀杆密封结构
图 1-4 装有波纹管组件的阀门典型阀杆密封结构

XUANXINGYAOQIU:①GENJUFAGANDEZHIJINGXUANZEBOWENGUANNEIJING,BOWENGUANDENEIJINGYINGDAYUFAGANZHIJING 1.5mm。BOWENGUANDEWAIJINGGENJUBOWENGUANNEIJINGLAIXUANZE。WAIJINGHENEIJINGTONGGUOWAIJINGYUNEIJINGDEBIZHIXIANGLIANXI,YIBANQINGKUANGXIA,WAIJINGYUNEIJINGDEBIZHIWEI 1.3~1.5。②BOWENGUANDEBIHOU、CENGSHU、BOWENSHUJIZHANGDUDENGYINGNENGMANZUBOWENGUANDENAIYA、XINGCHENG、XUNHUANSHOUMINGDENGYAOQIU。YIBANQINGKUANGXIA,YALIYUEDA,BOWENGUANDEBIHOUYUEHOU,WEILEZENGDAWEIYIHUOZHEJIANGDIBOWENGUANGANGDU,TIGAOSHOUMING,KEYICAIYONGJIANGDIDANCENGBIHOU、ZENGJIABOWENGUANCENGSHUDEBANFASHIXIAN。③YINGSHEJIDAOXIANGJIEGOU,YIFANGZHIBOWENGUANDENIUQU。TONGSHIHAIYINGBIMIANBOWENGUANYUFAGANHUOFATIZHIJIANDEJUBUJIECHU,YIFANGZHIMOSUNHEGUOZAOSHIXIAO。YINGSHEJIFANGNIUZHUANJIEGOU,FANGZHIBOWENGUANNIUZHUANBIANXING。④SHEJIFAMENSHI,YINGXIANZHIBOWENGUANYASUOHELASHENDEXINGCHENG,YIFANGZHIBOWENGUANCHENGSHOUCHAOCHUXUNHUANSHOUMINGSHIYANXIANDINGDEYASUOWEIYIHELASHENWEIYI。YIBANQINGKUANGXIA,BOWENGUANDEXINGCHENGBUYINGCHAOGUOZIYOUZHANGDUDE 25%,FOUZEHUIYINGXIANGBOWENGUANDEXUNHUANSHOUMING。TEBIESHIGAOWENGAOYAHUANJINGXIADEBOWENGUANFAMEN。⑤BOWENGUANCAIYONGYUFAMENXIANGTONGDEYALIHEWENDUDENGJI。BOWENGUANYINGNENGCHENGSHOUZHUTIFAMEN 38℃ TIAOJIANXIA 1.5 BEIDEGONGCHENGYALIDEYALISHIYAN。JINXINGYALISHIYANSHI,HANFENGBUNENGKAILIE、XIELOU,BOWENGUANBUYINGFASHENGNIUQU。⑥BOWENGUANZUJIANCAILIAOYINGZAIYUNXUDESHIYONGWENDUFANWEINEIXUANZE,TONGSHIBOWENGUANYONGCAILIAOJUYOULIANGHAODECHENGXINGXINGNENG、HANJIEXINGNENGYUJIEZHIDEXIANGRONGXING。

捕鱼大作战 3)FAMENYONGBOWENGUANXUANXINGBIAOJI:ANZHAOBOWENGUANYINGYONGFAMENGONGCHENGCHICUNBUTONGFENLEI,GENJU GB/T 1047-2005 ZHONGDEGONGCHENGCHICUNXILIEGUIDING,BOWENGUANYINGYONGFAMENDEGONGCHENGCHICUNKEFENWEI:15mm、20mm、25mm、32mm、40mm、50mm、65mm、80mm、100mm、125mm、150mm、200mm、250mm DENG。

图 1-5 波纹管标识
捕鱼大作战 图 1-5 波纹管标识

(5)FAMENYONGBOWENGUANDEJIANYAN:FAMENYONGJINSHUBOWENGUANDEJIANYANXIANGMUZHUYAOYOUBIAOMIANZHILIANG、JIHECHICUN、MIFENGXING、YALIJIXUNHUANSHOUMINGDENG。

1)BIAOMIANZHILIANG:ZAIBIAOZHUNZHAOMINGTIAOJIANXIA,MUCEGUANCHABOWENGUANBIAOMIANJIWAIXING、QIZHILIANGYINGMANZU JB/T 6169-2006 DEGUIDING。

2)JIHECHICUN:YONGFENDUZHIWEI 0.02mm DEKACHIHUOQIJINGQUEDUXIANGDANGDEQITALIANGJUHEYIQI,JIANYANBOWENGUANDEJIHECHICUNHEGONGCHAYINGFUHETUYANGYAOQIU。TUYANGWEIYAOQIUDEGONGCHAYINGFUHEBIAO 1-5 DEYAOQIU。

表 1-5 波纹管及配合尺寸允许公差
序号 工程尺寸名称 允许公差
1 波纹管外径 D ±1/2IT17
2 波纹管内径 d ±1/2IT17
3 端部配合直径 D1、 D2、 d1 h13、H13
4 端部配合长度 L1、L2 ±1/2IT17
5 有效长度 L0 ±1/2IT17
6 总长度 L ±1/2IT17

捕鱼大作战 3)MIFENGXINGJIANYAN:YOUCHENGZHIFANGZUHANDEBOWENGUANZUJIANYINGJINXINGMIFENGXINGJIANYAN,JIANYANKEYONGQIPAOJIANLOUFA。BOWENGUANJIQIZUJIANNEICHONGRU 0.6MPa DEYASUOKONGQIHUOQITAWUFUSHIXINGFEIKERANJIEJINGDEQITI,BAOYA 3min,ZAISHUICAOZHONGJIANCHABUYINGYOUXIELOUXIANXIANG。YEKEGENJUYONGHUYAOQIUYONGHAIZHIPUJIANLOUYIJIANLOU,BUYINGCHENGXIANKETANCECHUDESHENLOU。

4)压力试验:压力试验可在专用设备或阀门上进行。实验用水的氯离子含量不超过 25×10-7捕鱼大作战。按 JB/T 9092-1999 的规定,波纹管组件在室温或 38℃ 条件下,以 1.5 倍公称压力进行水压试验。

MEIGEBOWENGUANZUJIANYINGGUDINGZAIMOUYIZHANGDU,CIZHANGDUWEICHANGGUIFAMENQIAOTISHIYANSHIFAMENKAIQIWEIZHIDEZHANGDU。ZAISHIYANGUOCHENGZHONGYINGFANGZHIBOWENGUANLASHENHEYASUO。YALISHIJIAYINGYUBOWENGUANGONGZUOSHISHOUYAFANGSHIYIZHI。JINXINGYALISHIYANSHI,HANFENGBUNENGKAILIEHUOXIELU,BOWENGUANBUYINGFASHENGNIUQU。

捕鱼大作战 5)XUNHUANSHOUMINGSHIYAN:KEZAIZHUANYONGSHEBEIHUOFAMENSHANGJINXINGSHIYAN,DANGZHUTIFAMENXUYAOSHI,YINGANZHAOXIANGGUANBIAOZHUNJINXINGGAOWENXUNHUANSHOUMINGSHIYAN。

XUNHUANDEPINLVYINGKAOLVBUZHENGCHANGDEKUAISUXUNHUANKENENGCHANSHENGDEGUORE。XUNHUANPINLVBUYINGCHAOGUOMEIMIAOYICI。

XUNHUANSHIYANYINGZAISHIWENHUO 38℃ SHIDEGONGCHENGYALIXIAJINXING。JIAYAFANGSHITONGYALISHIYANYIYANG。

MEIGEBOWENGUANZUJIANZAXUNHUANSHIYANZHIHOUYINGJINXINGMIFENGXINGSHIYAN,BUYINGCHENGXIANKETANCEDESHENLOU。

CHUHETONGLINGYOUGUIDING,BOWENGUANDEXUNHUANSHOUMINGYINGFUHEBIAO 1-6 DEGUIDING。

表 1-6 波纹管最小循环寿命
阀门规格 最小循环寿命/次
公称压力/MPa 公称尺寸/mm 闸阀 截止阀
PN≤14.0 DN≤50 2000 5000
50<DN≤100 2000 5000
DN≤100 1000 2000
PN>14.0 DN≤50 2000 2000
50<DN≤100 1000 2000
DN≤100 1000 1000

6)CHUCHANGJIANYAN:CHUCHANGJIANYANDEXIANGMUHESHUNXUANBIAO 1-7 GUIDINGZHIXING。CHUCHANGJIANYANZHONGYOUBUHEGEXIANGDEBOWENGUAN,WEIBUHEGEPIN。

表 1-7 检验项目
序号 检验项目 出厂检验 型式试验
1 表面质量
2 几何尺寸
3 密封性
4 压力试验
5 循环寿命

捕鱼大作战 ZHU:● WEIBIJIANXIANGMU;— WEIBUJIANXIANGMU。

(6)JIEYU:FAMENSHIJINSHUBOWENGUANSHIBOWENGUANFAMENDEHEXINQIJIAN,BOWENGUANDESHEJIJIXUANYONG,GUANXIDAOFAMENSHIYONGANQUAN,TEBIESHIBOWENGUANFAMENDEYINGYONGLINGYUDOUSHIZHONGDIANGONGYELINGYUHEJUNGONGLINGYU,ZAIXINCHANPINSHIZHISHIYINGJINXINGXINGSHISHIYAN,ZAIXUANYONGSHIYINGSHIYONGYUFAMENSHIYONGXITONGDEKONGKUANGTIAOJIANJIJINSHUBOWENGUANDEJIEGOUTEXING。

1-5 API 标准安全阀的开发与应用如何?

DA:JIESHAO API (American Petroleum Institute MEIGUOSHIYOUXUEHUI)BIAOZHUNANQUANFADEGUIFANHETEDIAN,LUNSHULEZAIKAIFAGAICHANPINZHONGSUOJINXINGDEXINGNENGSHIYANHELIUCHANGFANGZHENFANGMIANDEYANJIUGONGZUO。TICHULETUIGUANGYINGYONGDEJIANYI。

捕鱼大作战 1)GAINIAN:WOGUODEANQUANFAJIBENSHANGSHIANZHAOJIXIEXINGYEBIAOZHUNJINXINGSHEJIZHIZAO。20 SHIJI 70 NIANDAIYIHOU,SUIZHEWOGUOGAIGEKAIFANGHEGUOMINGJINGJIXUNSUFAZHAN,CONGGUOWAIYINJINLEDALIANGSHIYOU、HUAGONG、NENGYUAN、YEJINHEFANGZHIDENGZHUANGZHIJISHEBEI,TONGSHISUIJIJINKOULEDALIANGGUOWAIANQUANFA。ZHEIXIEANQUANFADABUFENSHIANZHAO API BIAOZHUNSHEJI、ZHIZAO、SHIYANHEYANSHOU。YOUYU API BIAOZHUNANQUANFAYU JB ANQUANFAXIANGBI,JUYOUXIANZHEDETEDIANHEXIANJINXING,YINERJINJINIANLAI,YIXIEQIYEYAOQIU,ANZHUANGZAIYIRAN、YIBAO、YOUHAIHUOYOUDUJIEZHIDESHEBEIJIGUANDAOSHANGDEANQUANFA,YIXUANYONG API BIAOZHUNANQUANFA。WEILESHIYINGGELEIZHUANGZHIDUIANQUANFADEXUQIU,DUI API BIAOZHUNANQUANFAJINXINGLETANTAOHEYANJIU。

(2)TEXING

1)XIANGGUANBIAOZHUN:YU API BIAOZHUNANQUANFAXIANGGUANDECHANGYONGBIAOZHUNHEGUIFANRUXIA。

API RP 520 LIANYOUCHANGXIEYAZHUANGZHIDEDINGJING、XUANZEHEANZHUANG

捕鱼大作战 DIⅠBUFEN DINGJINGHEXUANZE

DIⅡBUFEN ANZHUANG

API Std526 GANGZHIFALANXIEYAFA

API Std527 XIEYAFAFAZUODEMIFENGXING

捕鱼大作战 API RP 576 XIEYAZHUANGZHIDEJIANCHA

捕鱼大作战 ASME GUOLUYUYALIRONGQIGUIFANDI Ⅷ JUAN

捕鱼大作战 DIYICE YALIRONGQIXIEYAZHUANGZHI

捕鱼大作战 ASME PTC25 XIEYAZHUANGZHI—XINGNENGSHIYANGUIFAN

2)MINGCISHUYU:API BIAOZHUNDEMOUXIEMINGCISHUYUYUWOGUOGUONEIXIGUANYONGYUBUYIZHI,GUYUYISHUOMING。

①XIEYAZHUANGZHI(Pressure Velief Device)。XIEYAZHUANGZHISHIFANGZHIGONGYIXITONGHUOCHENGYARONGQIYOUYUSHIGUHUOBUZHENGCHANGGONGKUANGQIJIANLIUTIYALISHENGGAOERCHAOGUOYUDINGYALIZHI。CHANGYOUDEYOUDANHUANGZHIJIEZAIHESHIXIEYAFA、XIANDAOSHIXIEYAFAHEBAOPOPIANDENG。

②XIEYAFA(Pressure Relief Valve)。XIEYAFASHIYIZHONGXIEYAZHUANGZHI,ZAIXITONGCHAOYASHIFAMENKAIQI,ERDANGXITONGYALIHUIFUDAOZHENGCHANGHOUFAMENGUANBI,CONGERFANGZHIJIEZHIJIXUWAILIU。CHANGJIANYOUDEANQUANFA、XIEFANGFA、XIANDAOSHIXIEYAFADENG。

③ANQUANFA(Safety Valve)。ANQUANFASHIYIZHONGYOURUKOUJINGYALIQUDONG,BINGYIKUAISUKAIQIHUOTUTIAODONGZUOWEITEZHENGDEXIEYAFA。QIYINGYONGYUKEYASUOLIUTI。

捕鱼大作战 ④XIEFANGFA(Relief Valve)。XIEFANGFASHIYIZHONGYOURUKOUJINGYALIQUDONGDEXIEYAFA,QIKAIQITONGCHANGYUCHAOGUOYALIDEYALISHENGGAOCHENGBILI。QIYINGYONGYUBUKEYASUOLIUTI。

⑤ANQUANXIEFANGFA(Safety Relief Valve)。ANQUANXIEYAFASHIYIZHONGYIYINGYONGQINGKUANGERZUOWEIANQUANFAHUOXIEFANGFADEXIEYAFA。

3)JIBENYAOQIU:

①ANQUANFADELIUDAOMIANJI(DAIHAO)、JINCHUKOUTONGJING、YALIJI(BANGJI)、JIBENCAILIAO、YALI-WENDUFANWEIHEJINCHUKOUANZHUANGCHICUNAN API Std 526 GUIDING。

捕鱼大作战 ②ANQUANFADEZHENGDINGYALI(Pa)YUNXUPIANCHAYUZHENGDINGYALIYOUGUAN。DANG Pa≤0.5MPa SHI,YUNXUPIANCHAWEI ±0.015MPa。DANG Pa>0.5SHI,YUNXUPIANCHAWEI ±3%Pa。

捕鱼大作战 ③ANQUANFADESHEJIHEZHIZAOAN ASME《GUOLUYUYALIRONGQIGUIFAN》DI Ⅷ JUANGUIDING。QIJIBENTIAOJIANBAOKUOJIXIEDONGZUO,CAILIAOXUANZE、ZHIZAOJIZHUANGPEIDEJIANCHAZHIZAOCHANGJIZHUANGPEICHANGDECHANPINSHIYAN、SHEJI、HANJIEJIQITADENGQIGEFANGMIAN。

RUDUIFABAN、FAZUO、DANHUANG、DAOTAO、TISHENGZHUANGZHIDEJIEGOUSHEJIHECAILIAOXUANZEYAOQIU,DUIZHIZAOCHANGJIZHUANGPEICHANGDEZHIZAO、SHIYANSHEBEIHEZHILIANGKONGZHICHENGXUDEYAOQIU,RUSHOUYAJIANDEQIANGDUHEQIMISHIYANYAOQIU、DUISHIYANZHUANGZHI、RONGQIHESHIYANFANGFADEYAOQIUDENG。

捕鱼大作战 ④BIAOYI ASME《GUOLUYUYALIRONGQIGUIFAN》DI Ⅷ JUANBIAOZHIDEXIEYAFADEPAILIANGYANZHENGSHIYANYINGZAIBUCHAOGUOKAIQIYALIDE 10% HUO 0.02MPa YALIXIAJINXING。

4)BIAOZHUNBIJIAO:JB、GB HE API BIAOZHUNANQUANFADEBIJIAOJIANBIAO 1-8。

表 1-8 JB、GB 和 API 标准安全阀的比较
项目 JB GB API(ASME)
设计 规格 8 种   25 种
流道直径 d0/mm ø20~ø125   ø9.5(D)~ø146(T)
面积比(出口/流道) 4.13~3.06   64.26~3.02
压力-温度等级     按流道直径(代号)明确
机械要求   应有导向机构以保证动作和密封的稳定性。阀座应固定在阀体上,以防松动。 考虑导向装置以保证工作可靠及密封性;阀座应紧固在阀体上,以防止阀座升起。
弹簧 负载偏差 ±10% ±10%  
最大负荷下变形量   ≤80% 压并变形量 ≤80% 压并变形量
最大负荷下切应力   ≤80% 极限切应力  
永久变形   试验负荷压缩 3 次后 ≤0.5%H。 压井三次后 ≤0.5%H。
整定压力调整范围 ≤±15%   ±5%
材料选择 结构材料      
阀座、阀瓣   本体材料的抗腐蚀性能应不低于阀体材料 根据压力—温度范围明确通用结构材料
导套   应具有良好的耐磨与抗腐蚀性能 用耐蚀材料
弹簧 防锈处理 防锈处理 用耐蚀材料或耐蚀涂层
制造       工艺装备、试验设备以及质量控制程序能保证产品性能一致性
试验 认证     性能和排量验证应在 ASME 认可的实验室进行
动作性能试验 蒸汽介质 饱和蒸汽 用蒸汽试验 用蒸汽试验,能力有限时刻用空气,但应校正
气体介质 空气 用空气、蒸汽或其他已知性质气体 用空气试验
液体介质 用水或其他已知性质液体进行试验 用水或其他合适的液体进行试验
试验装置     应具有足够尺寸及容量
密封性 压力 按图样规定

0.9P0

0.9P0
试验介质 允许用空气祸害器代替 同工作介质性质
允许泄漏率 金属座—按标准
软座—0 泡/min
金属座—按标准
软座—0 泡/min

5)TIAOKUANTEDIAN:

①GUIZE。API BIAOZHUNDUIANQUANFADEJIEGOUSHEJI、PAILIANGJISUAN、GUIGE、YALIJI、CAILIAO、ZHIZAO、SHIYAN、YUNSHU、ANZHUANG、SHIYONG、JIANCHAJIWEIXIU,JUNYOUWANZHENGHEQUANMIANDEJIBENYAOQIU。

捕鱼大作战 API RP 520、576 JIESHAOLEGEZHONGLEIXINGANQUANFADEJIGOUJIQITEDIAN。

API RP 520 DIⅠBUFENLIECHUGEZHONGLIUTIJIEZHI(QITI、SHUIZHENGQI、YETIJILIANGXIANGLIU)PAILIANGXIASUOXULIUDAOMIANJIDEJISUANFANGFA,BINGJICHUXIANGGUANXIUZHENGXISHU。

捕鱼大作战 API Std 526 GUIDINGLE 14 ZHONGLIUDAOZHIJING(HOUJING)ZAIBUYONGWENDUHEYALIXIADEGEZHONGGUIGE、YALIJIJIJIBENCAILIAOYAOQIU,BINGGUIDINGBIXUZHIXING AMSE GUIFANDEXIANGYINGZHIZAOHESHIYANYAOQIU。

捕鱼大作战 API Std 527 GUIDINGLEXIEYAFADEMIFENGXINGSHIYANFANGFAHEYAOQIU。

API RP 520 DIⅡBUFENLIECHUYOUGUANANZHUANGFAMIANDEYIXIEYAOQIU。

API RP 576 LIECHUXIEYAZHUANGZHIDEJIANCHAHEWEIXIUYAOQIU。

捕鱼大作战 ASME PTC 25 WEIXIEYAZHUANGZHIDESHIYANZHUANGZHI、SHIYANFANGFAHESHIYANBAOGAOTIGONGLEBIAOZHUN。

捕鱼大作战 ②GUIGEHEPINZHONG。API BIAOZHUNANQUANFAGUIGEHEPINZHONGJIAODUO。

弹簧载荷式安全阀的公称尺寸为 1~8in.(25~200mm),有 14 种(D~T)流道直径(d0=9.5~146mm),21 种规格,6 种压力级(150~2500lb),-268~260℃ 的温度范围。

捕鱼大作战 API BIAOZHUNFANWEIFAGUIGE、PINZHONGDUO,BIANYUXUANZEHELIGUIGEDEANQUANFA。

③WENDU—YALIJI。API BIAOZHUNANQUANFAGENJUSUOXUPAILIANGJISUANQUEDINGLIUDAOMIANJIHOU,ANZHAOGAILIUDAOMIANJIBIAOZHONGDEWENDUFANWEIHEYUNXUDEZUIGAOZHENGDINGYALI,QUEDINGSHIHEDEYALIDENGJI。

④CAILIAO。FABAN、FAZUOJIDAOXIANGLINGJIANYINGSHINAISHICAILIAOZHICHENG,YINGNENGMANZUWENDUHESHIYONGTIAOJIAN。YIZHAOSHIYONGDEWENDU,XUANYONGSHIHEDEFATI、FAGAIJIDANHUANGCAILIAO。FATIHEFAGAIDECAILIAOKEYIBUTONG,DANBIXUMANZUZUIDIDEYALI—WENDUYAOQIU,BIAOZHUNZHONGGUIDINGLEFATI、FAGAIHEDANHUANGCAILIAODEZUIDIDENGJIPAIHAO。

捕鱼大作战 ⑤ZHIZAOCHANGHESHIYANZHUANGZHIYAOQIU。ZHIZAOCHANGDEGONGYIZHUANGBEI、SHIYANZHUANGBEIYIJIZHILIANGKONGZHICHENGXUNENGGOUBAOZHENGSUOSHENGCHANANQUANFADEXINGNENGYIZHIXING。ANQUANFAXINGNENGSHIYANZHUANGZHIHERONGQIYINGYOUZUGOUCHICUNHERONGLIANG。

⑥运输和安装。安全阀运输中应有保护堵盖(塞)。安全阀人口管道的压力损失 Δp≤3%pa

(3)YANZHI

捕鱼大作战 YOUYUANZHAO API BIAOZHUNSHENGCHANANQUANFAYUANZHAO JB SHENGCHANANQUANFACUNZAICHAYI,YINERCHANPINZHIZAOGUOCHENGZHONGCHANGCHUXIANXUDUOWENTI。RUJIEGOUSHEJIBUHELI,CAILIAOXUANYONGBUDANG,ZHENGDINGYALIGUOGAOHUOSHIJIPAIFANGLIANGBUMANZUYAOQIUDENG。

捕鱼大作战 WEILEWANZHENGQUANMIANDELEJIE、SHUXIHEZHANGWO API BIAOZHUN(AMSE GUIFAN)XIANGGUANNEIRONGHEYAOQIU,YOUBIYAODUI API BIAOZHUNANQUANFAJINXINGSHENRUYANJIU,YIXIANSHIQITEDIANHEXIANJINXING。DUI API BIAOZHUNANQUANFAZHUYAOYANJIUBAOKUOSHIYANYANJIUHEJIANMOYANJIU。

捕鱼大作战 1)XINGNENGSHIYANYANJIU:

①SHIYANZHUANGZHI。WEILEJINXINGANQUANFADEXINGNENGJIPAILIANGSHIYANYANJIU,ANZHAO ASME PTC 25《XIEYAZHUANGZHI—XINGNENGSHIYANGUIFAN》DEYAOQIUJIANSHELEANQUANFAQUANXINGNENGSHIYANZHUANGZHI。GAISHIYANZHUANGZHIZHUYAOYOUDALIANGKONGQIYASUOJI、CHUQIGUAN、LIULIANGDIAOJIEFA、KONGZHIFA、SHIYANRONGQIJIGONGWEI、LIULIANGJI、YALICHUANGANQI、WENDUCHUANGANQI、WEIYICHUANGANQI、JISUANJISHUJUCAIJIJICHULIXITONGDENGZUCHENG。

SHIYANZHUANGZHIGONGSHESANGESHIYANGONGWEI。ZUIDASHIYANFATONGJING 8in.(200mm),ZUIGAOSHIYANYALI 23MPa,ZUIGAOSHIYANLIULIANG 100t/h(KONGQI)。SHIYANGONGWEIDESHIYANRONGQIDERONGJIFENBIEWEI 4.5m³、1.5m³、0.014m³。

WEILEGENGHAODIBIJIAOSHIYANZHUANGZHINENGLIDUIANQUANFAXINGNENGDEYINGXIANG,SUIHOUYOUJIANZAOLERONGJIWEI 0.5m³DESHIYANZHUANGZHI。DIANXINGANQUANFADESHIYANJIEGUOQUXIANRUTU 1-6~1-8。

图 1-6 入口压力与开启高度曲线
图 1-6 入口压力与开启高度曲线

图 1-7 开启高度与流量曲线
捕鱼大作战 图 1-7 开启高度与流量曲线

图 1-8 安全阀发证颤振时的开启高度曲线
捕鱼大作战 图 1-8 安全阀发证颤振时的开启高度曲线

②XINGNENGJIPAILIANGSHIYAN。ANQUANFADELIUDAOJIEGOUSHEJIDUIQIXINGNENGJIPAILIANGYOUZHONGLIANGYINGXIANG。API Std 526 BIAOZHUNGUIDINGLEANQUANFADEJINGCHUKOUJILIUDAOCHICUN,QICHUKOUMIANJIYULIUDAOMIANJIDEBILIWEI 64.26~3.02,YU JB GUIDINGDE 4.13~3.06 XIANGBIFANWEIJIBILIJUNJIAODA,TEBIEDUIYUTONGJINGJIAOXIAOZHEYOUXIANZHUCHABIE,JINXINGLEXINGNENGHEPAILIANGSHIYAN。DALIANGSHIYANBIAOMING:a.SHIYANZHUANGZHIXINGNENGDUIANQUANFADEXINGNENGYOUZHONGYAOYINGXIANG。TONGGUODUIWUZHONGGUIGE(II/2h4、2J3、3K4、3L4、4M6)DEANQUANFAZAIBUTONGSHIYANZHUANGZHISHANGDUIBISHIYANJIEGOUKEYIDECHU,SHIYANZHUANGZHIDERONGLIANGDUIANQUANFAZHENGDINGYALIHEQITIAOYALIJIBENWUYINGXIANG。ZHIYOUSHIYANZHUANGZHIRONGLIANGZUGOUDASHI,CAINENGPANDINGANQUANFADEHUIZUOYALIJIJIXIETEXINGSHIFOUFUHEYAOQIU。b.YU API Std 526 BIAOZHUNANQUANFAXIANGBI,CHUKOUMIANJIJIAOXIAODE JB ANQUANFAQIPAILIANGXISHUJIAOXIAO。ZAISHIYANZHUANGZHISHANGDUI API HE JB LIANGZHONGBIAOZHUNDEANQUANFAJINXINGLEPAILIANGSHIYAN。SHIYANBIAOMING,JB ANQUANFADECHUKOUMIANJIJIAOXIAOZHE,YINGXIANGDAOQIPAILIANGXISHUJIANXIAO。YIBAN JB ANQUANFADEPAILIANGXISHUWEI 0.8~0.9。ERAN API BIAOZHUNDEANQUANFAQIPAILIANGXISHUKEDA 0.98。

③ BEIYASHIYAN。ANQUANFADECHUKOUBEIYASHIQIXINGNENGYOUJIAODAYINGXIANG。JIAOGAODEBEIYAHUIYINGXIANGDAOANQUANFADEDONGZUOXINGNENGJIQIPAILIANG。ANQUANFABEIYASHIYANXITONGRUTU 1-9 SUOSHI。

图 1-9 安全阀背压试验系统图 1-9 安全阀背压试验系统

BEIYATONGGUOBEIYAFASHENGQICHANSHENG,DIAOJIEBEIYAZHUYAOSHITONGGUOGAIBIANBEIYAQIZHONGBEIYADIAOJIEQIKONGBANCHICUNLAIDIAOJIEFASHENGFACHUKOUPAIFANGBEIYA。TONGGUOBEIYASHIYAN,DECHULIANGDIANJINGYAN:a.PAIFANGBEIYACUNZAILINJIEZHI,CHAOGUOYUNXUZHIHOU,HUIDAOZHIANQUANFAJIXIEXINGNENGZAODAOPOHUAI,YINQIANQUANFAZHANZHENDENGXIANXIANG,PAIFANGGUOCHENGBUWENDING。b.ANQUANFAKAIQIGAODUSUIPAIFANGBEIYADESHENGGAOERJIANSHAO,PAIFANGBEIYADECUNZAI,YINQIKAIQIGAODUDEJIANGDI,DAOZHIANQUANFADESHIJIPAILIANGJIANGDI。

捕鱼大作战 2)LIUCHANGFANGZHEN:SUIRANJIEZHUYUXIANJINDEXINGNENGSHIYANZHUANGZHI,ZAIANQUANFADONGZUOTEXINGHEPAILIANGDENGFANGMIANSHANGHUODELEXUDUOCHENGGUO,RANERSHIYANYANJIUQUECUNZAIZHETOURUDA、ZHOUQIZHANG、FANGFAYOUJUXIANDEWENTI。SUOYIJIANGJISUANLIUTILIXUE(CFD)YINGYONGDAOANQUANFADEJICHULILUNYANJIUZHONG。LIYONGJISUANLIUTILIXUERUANJIAN,JIANLILEYIXIEANQUANFANEIBULIUCHANGDESANWEIMOXING。JINGGUOSHIYANYANZHENG,ZHEIXIEMOXINGJUYOUZUGOUDEJINGDUHEKEKAOXING,WANQUANKEYIYONGYUGONGCHENGYANJIU,QIZHONGLIANGGESUANLISUODEDAODEPAILIANGSHUZHIYUSHIYANSHUJUDEDUIBIJIANBIAO 1-9。

表 1-9 计算排量数值预试验数据的对比
序号 规格 实测排量/(kg/h) 计算排量/(kg/h) 计算值与试验值相差百分比(%)
1 2J3 4756.1 4795.9 0.84
2 II/2h4 4987.67 5030.1 0.85

捕鱼大作战 TONGGUODUIANQUANFANEIBULIUCHANGYANJIU,DUIANQUANFADENEIBULIUDONGYOULEQUANXINDERENSHI。ZAIANQUANFAZHENGGELIUDAOZHONG,FAZUODEHOUBUSHIZUIXIAODEJIHELIUTONGJIEMIAN。SUOYIZAIANQUANFADEGONGCHENGJISUANHESHEJIGUOCHENGZHONG,ZHEIGELIUDAOMIANJIJIUBEIJIASHEWEIZHENGGELIUDAOZHONGDESHIJIZUIXIAOQIDONGLIUTONGMIANJI,RUGUOGAILIUCHANGCHUYULINJIEHUOCHAOLINJIELIUDONGZHUANGTAI,ZEZAIFAZUOHOUBUCHUDADAOYINSU。

捕鱼大作战 YIWANGTONGGUOSHIYANFANGFA,YIJINGZHENGSHIZHEIGEJIASHECUNZAIWENTI,ANQUANFADELINJIEJIEMIANBUZAIFAZUOHOUBU,ERSHIZAIQIXIAYOU。DANSHIJIUJINGSHISHENMEYANGDELIUCHANGXINGTAI,CHANSHENGZHEIYIXIANXIANGDEJILISHISHENME,ZHEIXIESHIYANHENNANJIEDADEWENTIRUOTONGGUOLIUCHANGFANGZHENJIUKEYIHENRONGYIDIJIEDA。

捕鱼大作战 TU 1-10 WEIMOUGUIGEANQUANFANEIBULIUCHANGZHONGYINSUHECHAOYINSUQUYUDEMAHESHUDENGZHIXIANTU。CONGTUZHONGKEYIKANCHU,JIEZHIZAIFAZUOHOUBUDELIUDONGSHIYASHENGSUDE,SHIJIDEQIDONGLINJIEJIEMIANWEIYUFAZUOYUFABANZHIJIANXINGCHENGDEYUANZHUCEMIANSHANG。

图 1-10 安全阀内部流场中的马赫数等值线图
图 1-10 安全阀内部流场中的马赫数等值线图

(4)JIEYU

YOUYU API BIAOZHUNANQUANFAYU JB ANQUANFAXIANGBI,JUYOUXIANZHUDETEDIANHEXIANJINXING。YINERJINNIANLAI,API BIAOZHUNANQUANFAZAIWOGUODEDAOYUELAIYUEGUANGFANDEYINGYONG。CONGMUQIANXIANZHUANGFENXI,TICHUJIDIANJIANYI:

1)ANQUANFAZHIZAOCHANG、JIANYANDANWEIYIJISHIYONGBUMENXUQUANMIAN、WANZHENGDILEJIE、SHUXIHEZHANGWO API BIAOZHUN(ASME GUIFAN)XIANGGUANNEIRONGHEYAOQIU。

2)SHEJIDANWEIYUZHIZAOCHANGSHANGYANGEZUNXUN API BIAOZHUN(ASME GUIFAN)YAOQIUJINXINGANQUANFADESHEJIXUANXING、XUANCAIHEZHIZAO。

捕鱼大作战 3)GEZHIZAOCHANGDUISHENGCHANDE API BIAOZHUNANQUANFAYINGKAIZHANCHONGFENDEXINGNENGYANJIUGONGZUO,YIXIANSHI API BIAOZHUNANQUANFADETEDIAN。GEZHIZAOCHANGYINGTONGGUOJUYOUZIZHIDEJIANCEBUMENQUEDINGANQUANFADEPAILIANGXISHUYIGONGYONGHUXUANXINGSHISHIYONG。

捕鱼大作战 4)MUQIANGUONEIANQUANFAZHIZAOCHANGDESHENGCHANSHOUDUANHESHIYANTIAOJIANJIAOGUOWAICHANGJIAYOUJIAODACHAJU,TEBIEZAISHIYANTIAOJIANFANGMIAN。YINER,JIANYIANQUANFAZHIZAOCHANGHEJIANYANDANWEIYINGCHUANGZAOTIAOJIANMANZUANQUANFAXINGNENGSHIYANDEYAOQIU。LIRU,GUANYUSHIYANZHUANGZHIHERONGQIYINGYOUZUGOUCHICUNHERONGLIANG。ZHEISHEJIHUIZUOYALIDEZHUNQUEXINGYIJILIXUEXINGNENGDEPANDUAN。

5)ANQUANFASHIYONGDANWEIYINGXIANGGONGHUODANWEI(ZHIZAOCHANG)TICHUANQUANFADEMINGQUEDINGHUOYAOQIU,BINGZAISHOUHUOSHISUOYAOXIANGGUANWENJIAN(LIRUHEGEZHENG、ZHILIANGZHENGMINGSHU、SHIYANBAOGAODENG)YIJIJINXINGBIYAOXIANGMUDEYANSHOU。

第 2 章 工业管道及阀门维修、安装必备的基础知识

2-1 管道有哪些分类方法?管道有什么用途?

DA:GUANDAOFENLEIFANGFATONGCHANGANJIEZHIDEYALI、WENDU、XINGZHIFENLEI,YEKEANGUANDAOCAIZHI、WENDUHEYALIFENLEI,YIJICAIZHIQINGKUANGDENGFENLEIFANGFA。

捕鱼大作战 ZHEILIGUANDAOANQICAIZHIKEFENWEIGANGGUAN、YOUSEJINSHUGUAN、ZHUTIEGUAN、FEIJINSHUGUANSIZHONG。TAMENDEZHUYAOYONGTULIJURUXIA:

(1)GANGGUAN

1)YIBANWUFENGGANGGUAN、YONGYUZHIZUOLIUTIJIEZHIGUANDAOHUOZHIZUOJIEGOUGUANJIANDENG。BIAOZHUNWEI GB/T 8163—1999《SHUSONGLIUTIYONGWUFENGGANGGUAN》。CHANGYONGGUIGE:JIEGOUYONGWUFENGGANGGUANWAIJING 5~200,BIHOU 0.25~14mm,JIANBIAO 2-1;SHUSONGLIUTIYONGWUFENGGANGGUANWAIJING 32~630mm。BIHOU 2.5~75mm,JIANBIAO 2-2。

CHANGYONGWUFENGGANGGUANGUIGECHICUNJIDANWEIZHANGDULILUNZHILIANG(kg/m)JIANBIAO 2-3。

表 2-1 结构用无缝钢管规格
外径/mm 壁厚/mm
0.25 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.80 1.0 1.2 1.4
理论重量/(kg/m)
5 0.0292 0.0348 0.0454 0.055 0.065 0.083 0.099 0.112 0.124
6 0.0354 0.0421 0.055 0.068 0.080 0.103 0.123 0.142 0.159
7 0.0416 0.0496 0.065 0.080 0.095 0.122 0.148 0.172 0.193
8 0.0477 0.057 0.075 0.092 0.110 0.142 0.173 0.202 0.227
9 0.054 0.064 0.085 0.105 0.125 0.162 0.197 0.231 0.262
10 0.060 0.072 0.095 0.117 0.139 0.182 0.222 0.261 0.296
11 0.066 0.079 0.105 0.129 0.154 0.201 0.247 0.290 0.331
12 0.072 0.087 0.115 0.142 0.169 0.221 0.271 0.320 0.365
14 0.085 0.101 0.134 0.166 0.199 0.260 0.321 0.379 0.434
16 0.094 0.116 0.154 0.191 0.228 0.300 0.370 0.438 0.503
18 0.109 0.131 0.174 0.216 0.258 0.340 0.419 0.497 0.572
20 0.122 0.146 0.193 0.240 0.288 0.379 0.469 0.556 0.642
22 0.212 0.265 0.318 0.419 0.518 0.616 0.710
25 0.242 0.302 0.363 0.478 0.592 0.703 0.813
28 0.272 0.340 0.406 0.536 0.666 0.792 0.916
29 0.282 0.352 0.418 0.553 0.691 0.823 0.951
30 0.292 0.364 0.436 0.576 0.715 0.851 0.986
32 0.311 0.389 0.466 0.615 0.765 0.910 1.05
34 0.331 0.413 0.496 0.655 0.814 0.968 1.12
36 0.350 0.438 0.525 0.695 0.863 1.03 1.19
38 0.370 0.464 0.555 0.734 0.912 1.09 1.26
40 0.390 0.494 0.585 0.774 0.962 1.15 1.33
42 1.01 1.21 1.41
44.5 1.07 1.28 1.48
45 1.09 1.30 1.51
48 1.16 1.38 1.61
50 1.21 1.44 1.68
53 1.28 4.53 1.78
56 1.36 1.62 1.89
60 1.46 1.74 2.02
63 1.53 1.83 2.13
65 1.58 1.89 2.20
70 1.70 2.03 2.37
75 1.82 2.18 2.54
外径/mm 壁厚/mm
1.5 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.5 2.8 3.0 3.2
理论重量/(kg/m)
5 0.129 0.134
6 0.166 0.174 0.186 0.197
7 0.203 0.213 0.230 0.247 0.260 0.277
8 0.240 0.253 0.296 0.315 0.339
9 0.277 0.292 0.319 0.345 0.369 0.401 0.427
10 0.314 0.332 0.363 0.395 0.423 0.462 0.496 0.518 0.536
11 0.351 0.371 0.407 0.444 0.477 0.524 0.566 0.592 0.615
12 0.388 0.411 0.452 0.493 0.532 0.586 0.635 0.666 0.694
14 0.462 0.490 0.541 0.592 0.640 0.709 0.772 0.814 0.852
16 0.536 0.568 0.629 0.691 0.747 0.832 0.910 0.962 1.01
18 0.610 0.647 0.717 0.789 0.856 0.956 1.05 1.11 1.17
20 0.684 0.726 0.806 0.888 0.965 1.08 1.19 1.26 1.33
22 0.758 0.806 0.895 0.986 1.07 1.20 1.33 1.·41 1.49
25 0.869 0.925 1.03 1.13 1.24 1.39 1.53 1.63 1.72
28 0.980 1.04 1.16 1.28 1.40 1.57 1.74 1.85 1.96
29 1.02 1.08 1.22 1.33 1.47 1.63 1.83 1.92 2.02
30 1.05 1.12 1.25 1.38 1.51 1.70 1.88 2.00 2.12
32 1.13 1.20 1.34 1.48 1.62 1.82 2.02 2.15 2.28
34 1.20 1.28 1.43 1.58 1.72 1.94 2.15 2.29 2.43
36 1.28 1.36 1.53 1.68 1.83 2.07 2.29 2.44 2.59
38 1.35 1.44 1.61 1.78 1.94 2.19 2.43 2.59 2.75
40 1.42 1.52 1.69 1.87 2.05 2.31 2.56 2.74 2.91
42 1.50 1.60 1.79 1.97 2.16 2.44 2.70 2.89 3.07
44.5 1.59 1.65 1.88 2.10 2.29 2.59 2.89 3.07 3.25
45 1.61 1.71 1.91 2.12 2.32 2.62 2.91 3.11 3.31
48 1.72 1.83 2.05 2.27 2.48 2.81 3.11 3.33 3.54
50 1.79 1.91 2.14 2.37 2.59 2.93 3.25 3.48 3.70
53 1.91 2.03 2.27 2.52 2.76 3.11 3.46 3.70 3.94
56 2.02 2.15 2.40 2.56 2.92 3.30 3.66 3.92 4.17
60 2.16 2.31 2.58 2.86 3.13 3.55 3.94 4.22 4.49
63 2.27 2.42 2.71 3.01 3.30 3.72 4.15 4.44 4.73
65 2.35 2.50 2.80 3.11 3.40 3.85 4.29 4.59 4.89
70 2.53 2.70 3.02 3.35 3.68 4.16 4.63 4.96 5.28
75 2.71 2.90 3.24 3.60 3.95 4.46 4.97 5.32 5.68
外径/mm 壁厚/mm
3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5
理论重量/(kg/m)
5
6
7
8
9
10 0.561
11 0.647
12 0.734 0.789
14 0.906 0.986
16 1.08 1.18 1.28 1.35
18 1.25 1.38 1.50 1.60
20 1.42 1.58 1.72 1.82 1.97 2.07
22 1.60 1.77 1.94 2.10 2.24 2.37
25 1.86 2.07 2.28 2.47 2.64 2.81 2.97 3.11
28 2.11 2.37 2.61 2.84 3.05 3.26 3.45 3.68
29 2.20 2.47 2.72 2.96 3.19 3.40 3.61 3.80 3.98
30 2.29 2.56 2.83 3.08 3.32 3.55 3.77 3.97 4.16
32 2.46 2.76 3.05 3.33 3.59 3.85 4.09 4.32 4.53
34 2.63 2.96 3.27 3.58 3.87 4.14 4.41 4.66 4.90
36 2.81 3.16 3.50 3.82 4.14 4.44 4.73 5.01 5.27
38 2.98 3.35 3.72 4.07 4.41 4.74 5.05 5.35 5.64
40 3.15 3.55 3.94 4.32 4.68 5.03 5.37 5.70 6.01
42 3.32 3.75 4.16 4.56 4.95 5.33 5.69 6.04 6.38
44.5 3.54 4.00 4.44 4.87 5.29 5.70 6.06 6.47 6.84
45 3.58 4.04 4.49 4.93 5.36 5.77 6.17 6.56 6.94
48 3.84 4.34 4.83 5.30 5.76 6.21 6.65 7.08 7.49
50 4.01 4.54 5.05 5.55 6.04 6.51 6.97 7.42 7.86
53 4.27 4.83 5.38 5.92 6.44 6.95 7.45 7.94 8.42
56 4.53 5.13 5.71 6.29 6.85 7.40 7.93 8.40 8.97
60 4.88 5.52 6.16 6.78 7.39 7.99 8.58 9.15 9.71
63 5.13 5.81 6.49 7.14 7.77 8.41 9.04 9.57 10.23
65 5.31 6.02 6.71 7.40 8.07 8.73 9.38 10.01 10.65
70 5.74 6.51 7.27 8.01 8.75 9.47 10.18 10.88 11.56
75 6.17 7.00 7.82 8.62 9.41 10.18 10.96 11.71 12.48
外径/mm 壁厚/mm
8.0 8.5 9 9.5 10 11 12 13 14
理论重量/(kg/m)
30 4.34
32 4.74
34 5.13
36 5.52
38 5.92 6.18 6.44
40 6.31 6.60 6.88
42 6.71 7.02 7.32
44.5 7.20 7.55 7.88
45 7.30 7.65 7.99 8.32 8.63
48 7.89 8.28 8.66 9.02 9.37
50 8.29 8.70 9.10 9.49 9.86 10.59 11.25
53 8.88 9.33 9.77 10.19 10.60 11.39 12.13
56 9.47 9.96 10.43 10.90 11.34 12.21 13.02
60 10.26 10.80 11.32 11.83 12.33 13.29 14.21 15.07 15.88
65 11.25 11.84 12.43 13.00 13.56 14.65 15.68
70 12.23 12.89 13.54 14.17 14.80 16.01 17.16 18.27 19.33
75 13.17 13.91 14.61 15.30 15.99 17.31 18.65
外径/mm 壁厚/mm
1.2 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.5 2.8
理论重量/(kg/m)
80 2.71 2.90 3.09 3.47 3.84 4.22 4.77 5.32
85 2.88 3.08 3.29 3.69 4.09 4.48 5.08 5.66
90 3.05 3.27 3.49 3.91 4.34 4.76 5.39 6.01
95 3.21 3.46 3.68 4.13 4.59 5.02 5.70 6.36
100 3.40 3.64 3.88 4.35 4.83 5.30 6.00 6.70
110 3.74 4.03 4.28 4.81 5.32 5.84 6.62 7.39
120 4.36 4.66 5.25 5.83 6.38 7.24 8.07
125 5.46 6.06 6.64 7.54 8.42
130 7.86 8.78
140
150
外径/mm 壁厚/mm
3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0
理论重量/(kg/m)
80 5.69 6.60 7.49 8.37 9.24 10.07 10.91 11.75 12.59
85 6.06 7.04 7.98 8.93 9.86 10.75 11.65 12.55 13.45
90 6.43 7.47 8.47 9.49 10.47 11.42 12.39 13.35 14.31
95 6.81 7.90 8.98 10.04 11.10 12.14 13.17 14.19 15.19
100 7.17 8.32 9.46 10.59 11.71 12.77 13.87 14.95 16.03
110 7.92 9.19 10.46 11.70 12.93 14.19 15.40 16.60 17.75
120 8.66 10.06 11.44 12.93 14.30 15.51 16.89 18.20 19.50
125 9.02 10.50 11.91 13.37 14.80 16.15 17.55 19.02 20.35
130 9.40 10.92 12.43 13.92 15.48 16.88 18.35 19.80 21.20
140 10.11 11.80 13.42 15.05 16.65 18.24 19.83 21.40 22.96
150 10.85 12.65 14.39 16.11 17.85 19.55 21.25 23.00 24.68
160 13.53 15.38 17.25 19.09 20.96 22.79 24.60 26.41
170 14.31 16.31 18.35 20.30 22.31 24.27 26.21 28.14
180 15.20 17.30 19.50 21.59 23.67 25.75 27.81 29.87
190 18.29 20.60 22.80 25.02 27.22 29.41 31.59
200 19.67 21.65 24.00 26.38 28.70 31.02 33.32
外径/mm 壁厚/mm
7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10 11 12 13
理论重量/(kg/m)
80 13.39 14.15 14.96 15.71 16.45 17.22 18.66 20.10  
85 14.31 15.13 16.01 16.85 17.63 18.45 20.01 21.60  
90 15.22 16.11 17.05 17.95 18.79 19.67 21.43 23.08  
95 16.18 17.16 18.13 19.09 20.03 20.96 22.79 24.56  
100 17.09 18.09 19.15 20.15 21.15 22.19 24.14 26.04  
110 19.00 20.08 21.30 22.50 23.54 24.70 26.85 29.00  
120 20.85 22.10 23.40 24.70 25.89 27.20 29.57 31.96  
125 21.73 23.08 24.42 25.75 27.06 28.36 30.92 33.44  
130 22.70 24.10 25.50 26.90 28.23 29.70 32.27 34.92  
140 24.51 26.04 27.57 29.08 30.57 32.06 34.99 37.88  
150 26.36 28.01 29.66 31.29 32.91 34.52 37.71 40.84  
160 28.20 29.99 31.76 33.51 35.26 36.99 40.42 43.80  
170 30.05 31.96 33.85 35.73 37.60 39.46 43.13 46.76  
180 31.91 33.93 35.95 37.95 39.95 41.92 45.85 49.72  
190 33.72 35.90 38.04 40.17 42.28 44.39 48.56 52.67  
200 35.60 37.88 40.14 42.39 44.63 46.85 51.27 55.63  

ZHU:1.BENBIAONAICANKAO GB/T 8163—1999。

捕鱼大作战 2.BIHOU ≤1mm,GANGGUANZHANG 1.5—7mm;BIHOU >1mm,GANGGUANZHANG 1.5~9mm。

表 2-2 输送流体用无缝钢管规格
外径/mm 壁厚/mm
2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 7 7.5
理论重量/(kg/m)
32 1.82 2.15 2.46 2.76 3.05 3.33 3.59 3.85 4.09 4.32 4.53
38 2.19 2.59 2.98 3.35 3.72 4.07 4.41 4.74 5.05 5.35 5.64
42 2.44 2.89 3.53 3.75 4.16 4.56 4.95 5.33 5.69 6.04 6.38
45 2.62 3.11 3.58 4.04 4.49 4.93 5.36 5.77 6.17 6.56 6.94
50 2.93 3.48 4.01 4.54 5.05 5.55 6.04 6.51 6.97 7.42 7.86
54 3.77 4.36 4.93 5.49 6.04 6.58 7.10 7.61 8.11 8.60
57 4.00 4.62 5.23 5.83 6.41 6.99 7.55 8.10 8.63 9.16
60 4.22 4.88 5.52 6.16 6.78 7.39 7.99 8.58 9.15 9.74
63.5 4.48 5.18 5.87 6.55 7.21 7.87 8.51 9.14 9.75 10.36
68 4.81 5.57 6.31 7.05 7.77 8.48 9.17 9.86 10.53 11.19
70 4.96 5.74 6.51 7.27 8.01 8.75 9.47 10.18 10.88 11.56
73 5.18 6.00 6.81 7.60 8.38 9.16 9.91 10.66 11.39 12.11
76 5.40 6.26 7.10 7.93 8.75 9.56 10.36 11.14 11.91 12.67
83 6.86 7.79 8.71 9.62 10.51 11.39 12.26 13.12 13.96
89 7.38 8.38 9.38 10.36 11.33 12.28 13.22 14.16 15.07
95 7.90 8.98 10.04 11.10 12.14 13.17 14.19 15.19 16.18
102 8.50 9.67 10.82 11.96 13.09 14.21 15.31 16.40 17.48
108 10.26 11.49 12.70 13.90 15.09 16.27 17.44 18.59
114 10.85 12.15 13.44 14.72 15.98 17.23 18.47 19.70
121 11.54 19.93 14.30 15.67 17.02 18.35 19.68 20.99
127 12.13 13.59 15.04 16.48 17.90 19.32 20.72 22.10
133 12.73 14.26 15.78 17.29 18.79 20.28 21.75 23.21
140 15.04 16.65 18.24 19.83 21.40 22.96 24.51
146 15.70 17.39 19.06 20.72 22.36 24.00 25.62
159 17.15 18.99 20.82 22.64 24.45 26.24 28.02
168 20.10 22.04 23.97 25.89 27.79 29.69
180 21.59 23.70 25.75 27.70 29.87 31.91
194 23.31 25.60 27.82 30.00 32.28 34.50
203 29.14 31.50 33.83 36.16
219 31.52 34.06 36.60 39.12
245 38.23 41.09 43.85
273 42.64 45.94 49.10
299 53.91
325 58.74
外径/mm 壁厚/mm
8 8.5 9 9.5 10 11 12 13 14 15
理论重量/(kg/m)
32 4.74
38 5.92
42 6.71 7.02 7.32 7.60 7.88
45 7.30 7.65 7.99 8.32 8.63
50 8.29 8.70 9.10 9.49 9.86
54 9.08 9.54 9.99 10.43 10.85 11.67
57 9.67 10.17 10.65 11.13 11.59 12.48 13.32 14.11
60 10.26 10.80 11.32 11.83 12.33 13.29 14.21 15.07 15.88  
63.5 10.95 11.53 12.10 12.65 13.19 14.24 15.24 16.19 17.09  
68 11.84 12.47 13.10 13.71 14.30 15.46 16.57 17.63 18.64 19.61
70 12.23 12.89 13.54 14.17 14.80 16.01 17.16 18.27 19.33 20.35
73 12.82 13.52 14.21 14.88 15.54 16.82 18.05 19.24 20.37 21.46
76 13.42 14.15 14.87 15.58 16.28 17.63 18.94 20.20 21.41 22.57
83 14.80 15.62 16.42 17.22 18.00 19.53 21.01 22.44 23.82 25.15
89 15.98 16.87 17.76 18.63 19.48 21.16 22.79 24.37 25.89 27.37
95 17.16 18.13 19.09 20.03 20.96 22.79 24.56 26.29 27.97 29.59
102 18.55 19.60 20.64 21.67 22.69 24.69 26.53 28.63 30.38 32.18
108 19.73 20.86 21.97 23.08 24.17 26.31 28.41 30.46 32.45 34.40
114 20.91 22.12 23.31 24.48 25.65 27.94 30.19 32.38 34.53 36.62
121 22.29 23.58 24.86 26.12 27.37 29.84 32.26 34.62 36.94 39.21
127 23.48 24.84 26.19 27.53 28.85 31.47 34.03 36.55 39.01 41.43
133 24.66 36.10 27.53 28.93 30.33 33.10 35.81 38.47 41.09 43.65
140 26.04 27.57 29.08 30.57 32.06 34.99 37.88 40.72 43.50 46.24
146 27.23 28.82 30.41 31.98 33.54 36.62 39.66 42.64 45.57 48.46
152 28.41 30.08 31.74 33.39 35.02 38.25 41.43 44.56 47.65 50.68
159 29.79 31.55 33.29 35.03 36.75 40.15 43.50 46.81 50.06 53.27
168 31.57 33.43 35.29 37.13 38.97 42.59 46.17 49.69 53.17 56.60
180 33.93 35.95 37.95 39.95 41.92 45.85 49.72 53.54 57.31 61.04
194 36.70 28.89 40.06 43.23 45.38 49.64 53.86 58.03 62.15 66.22
203 38.47 40.77 43.05 45.33 47.59 52.08 56.52 60.91 65.94 69.54
219 41.63 44.12 46.61 49.08 51.54 56.43 61.26 66.04 70.78 75.46
245 46.76 49.56 52.38 55.17 57.95 63.48 68.95 74.38 79.76 83.08
273 52.28 55.45 58.60 61.73 64.86 71.07 77.24 83.36 89.42 95.44
299 57.41 60.89 64.37 67.38 71.27 78.13 84.93 91.69 98.40 105.06
325 62.54 66.35 70.14 73.92 77.68 85.18 92.63 100.03 107.38 114.68
351 67.67 71.80 75.91 80.01 84.10 92.23 100.32 108.36 116.35 124.29
377 81.68 86.10 90.51 99.29 108.02 117.00 125.33 133.91
402 87.21 91.95 96.67 106.06 115.41 124.71 133.94 143.15
426 92.55 97.57 102.59 112.58 122.52 132.41 142.25 152.04
450 97.87 103.20 108.50 119.08 130.61 140.09 150.52 160.90
480 104.52 110.22 115.90 127.22 139.49 149.71 160.88 172.00
500 108.96 114.91 120.83 132.65 145.41 156.12 167.79 179.40
530 115.62 121.94 128.23 140.78 154.29 165.74 178.14 190.50
560 122.28 128.97 135.63 148.92 163.16 175.36 188.50 201.60
600 131.17 138.34 145.50 159.78 175.00 188.18 202.31 216.39
630 137.81 145.36 152.89 167.91 183.88 197.80 212.67 227.49
外径/mm 壁厚/mm
16 17 18 19 20 22 25 28
理论重量/(kg/m)
57
68 20.52
70 21.31
73 22.49 23.48 24.41 25.30
76 23.68 24.74 25.75 26.71
83 26.44 27.67 28.85 29.99
89 28.80 30.19 31.52 32.80 34.03 36.35
95 31.17 32.70 34.18 35.61 36.99 39.61
102 33.93 35.64 37.29 38.89 40.44 43.40
108 36.30 38.15 39.95 41.70 43.40 46.66 51.17 55.24
114 38.67 40.67 42.62 44.51 46.36 49.91 54.87 59.39
121 41.43 43.60 45.72 47.79 49.82 53.71 59.19 64.22
127 43.80 46.12 48.39 50.61 52.78 56.97 62.89 68.36
133 46.17 48.63 51.05 53.42 55.73 60.22 66.59 72.50
140 48.93 51.57 54.16 56.70 59.19 64.02 70.90 77.34
146 51.30 54.08 56.82 59.51 62.15 67.27 74.60 81.48
152 53.66 56.60 59.48 62.32 65.11 70.59 78.30 85.62
159 56.43 59.53 62.59 65.60 68.56 74.33 82.62 90.46
168 59.98 63.31 66.59 69.82 73.00 73.21 88.16 96.67
180 64.71 68.34 71.91 75.44 78.92 85.72 95.56 104.96
194 70.24 74.21 78.13 82.00 85.28 93.32 104.19 114.63
203 73.78 77.97 81.12 86.21 90.26 98.20 109.74 120.83
219 80.10 84.69 89.23 93.71 98.15 106.88 119.61 131.89
245 90.36 95.59 100.77 105.90 110.98 120.99 135.64 149.84
273 101.41 107.33 113.20 119.02 124.79 136.18 152.90 169.18
299 111.67 118.23 124.74 131.20 137.61 150.29 168.93 187.13
325 121.93 129.13 136.28 143.38 150.44 164.39 184.96 205.09
351 132.19 140.03 147.82 155.56 163.26 178.50 200.99 233.04
377 142.44 150.93 159.36 167.75 176.08 192.61 217.02 240.99
402 150.30 161.40 170.45 179.45 188.40 206.16 232.42 258.24
426 161.78 171.47 181.11 190.71 200.25 219.19 247.23 274.83
450 171.24 181.52 191.76 201.94 212.08 232.20 262.01 291.38
480 183.08 194.10 205.07 216.00 226.87 248.47 280.51 312.10
500 190.97 202.48 213.95 225.37 236.74 259.32 292.84 325.91
530 202.80 215.06 227.27 239.42 251.53 275.60 317.50 346.62
560 214.64 227.64 240.58 253.48 266.33 291.88
600 230.42 244.40 258.34 272.22 286.06 291.88
630 242.26 256.98 271.66 286.28 300.85 329.85
外径/mm 壁厚/mm
30 32 36 40 50 56 60 63 70 75
理论重量/(kg/m)
127 71.26
133 76.20 79.71
140 81.38 85.23 92.33
146 85.82 89.97 97.66
152 90.26 94.70 102.99
159 95.44 100.22 109.20
168 102.10 107.33 117.19 126.27
180 110.98 116.80 127.85 138.10
194 121.33 127.85 140.27 151.91
203 127.99 134.94 148.26 160.78
219 139.83 147.57 162.47 176.58
245 159.07 168.09 185.55 202.22
273 179.78 190.19 185.55 202.22
299 199.02 210.71 233.50 255.49
325 218.25 231.23 256.53 281.14
351 237.49 251.74 279.66 306.76
377 256.73 272.26 302.77 332.44
402 275.21 291.18 324.92 357.08
426 292.98 310.93 346.27 380.77
450 310.72 329.84 307.53 404.42
480 332.91 353.52 394.17 463.01
500 347.71 369.30 411.92 453.74
530 369.90 392.92 438.55 483.34
203 188.65
219 208.38
245 240.44
273 274.96
299 307.02 335.57 353.62 366.64 395.30 414.29
325 339.10 371.49 392.09 407.04 440.34 462.28
351 371.16 407.40 430.59 447.43 485.24 510.46
377 403.22 442.30 469.06 484.82 529.98 558.55
402 434.01 477.81 506.02 526.66 573.10 604.79
426 463.64 510.97 541.57 560.47 614.56 649.21
450 493.20 544.10 577.04 601.24 655.96 693.56
480 530.19 585.53 621.43 632.31 707.24 749.05
500 554.85 613.15 651.02 678.91 742.27 786.04
530 591.84 654.58 695.41 725.52 794.05 841.52

捕鱼大作战 ZHU:GANGGUANZHANGWEI 3~12.5m。

表 2-3 常用无缝管规格钢材尺寸及单位长度理论质量(GB/T 17395—2008)
外径/mm 壁厚/mm
0.25 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.80 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2(2.3) 2.5(2.6) 2.8
系列 1 系列 2 系列 3 单位长度理论质量/(kg/m)
  6   0.035 0.042 0.055 0.068 0.080 0.103 0.123 0.142 0.159 0.166 0.174 0.186 0.197      
  7   0.042 0.050 0.065 0.080 0.095 0.122 0.148 0.172 0.193 0.203 0.213 0.231 0.247 0.260 0.277  
  8   0.048 0.057 0.075 0.092 0.110 0.142 0.173 0.201 0.228 0.240 0.253 0.275 0.296 0.315 0.339  
  9   0.054 0.064 0.085 0.105 0.124 0.162 0.197 0.231 0.262 0.277 0.292 0.320 0.345 0.369 0.401 0.428
10     0.060 0.072 0.095 0.117 0.139 0.182 0.222 0.261 0.097 0.314 0.332 0.364 0.395 0.423 0.462 0.497
  11   0.066 0.079 0.105 0.129 0.154 0.201 0.247 0.290 0.331 0.351 0.371 0.408 0.444 0.477 0.524 0.566
  12   0.072 0.087 0.115 0.142 0.169 0.221 0.271 0.320 0.366 0.388 0.410 0.453 0.493 0.532 0.586 0.635
  13   0.079 0.094 0.124 0.154 0.184 0.241 0.296 0.349 0.400 0.425 0.450 0.497 0.543 0.596 0.647 0.704
13.5     0.082 0.098 0.129 0.160 0.191 0.251 0.308 0.364 0.418 0.444 0.470 0.519 0.567 0.613 0.678 0.739
    14 0.085 0.101 0.134 0.166 0.198 0.260 0.321 0.179 0.435 0.462 0.490 0.542 0.592 0.640 0.709 0.773
  16   0.197 0.116 0.154 0.191 0.228 0.300 0.370 0.438 0.504 0.536 0.568 0.630 0.691 0.749 0.832 0.91
17     0.103 0.124 0.164 0.203 0.243 0.320 0.395 0.468 0.539 0.573 0.608 0.675 0.740 0.803 0.894 0.98
    18 0.109 0.131 0.174 0.216 0.258 0.340 0.419 0.497 0.573 0.610 0.647 0.719 0.789 0.857 0.956 1.05
  19   0.115 0.138 0.183 0.228 0.272 0.359 0.444 0.527 0.608 0.647 0.687 0.763 0.838 0.911 1.02 1.12
  20   0.122 0.146 0.193 0.240 0.287 0.379 0.469 0.556 0.642 0.684 0.726 0.808 0.888 0.966 1.08 1.19
21         0.203 0.253 0.302 0.399 0.493 0.586 0.677 0.721 0.765 0.852 0.937 1.02 1.14 1.26
    22     0.212 0.265 0.317 0.418 0.518 0.616 0.711 0.758 0.805 0.897 0.986 1.07 1.20 1.33
  25       0.242 0.302 0.361 0.477 0.592 0.704 0.815 0.869 0.923 1.03 1.13 1.24 1.39 1.53
    25.4     0.247 0.307 0.367 0.485 0.602 0.714 0.829 0.884 0.939 1.05 1.15 1.26 1.41 1.56
27         0.262 0.327 0.391 0.517 0.641 0.763 0.884 0.943 1.00 1.13 1.23 1.34 1.51 1.67
  28       0.272 0.339 0.406 0.537 0.666 0.793 0.918 0.98 1.04 1.16 1.28 1.40 1.57 1.88
    30     0.292 0.364 0.435 0.576 0.715 0.852 0.987 1.05 1.12 1.25 1.38 1.51 1.70 1.88
  32       0.311 0.388 0.465 0.616 0.765 0.911 1.056 1.13 1.20 1.34 1.48 1.62 1.82 2.02
34         0.331 0.413 0.494 0.655 0.814 0.971 1.125 1.20 1.28 1043 1.58 1.72 1.94 2.15
    35     0.341 0.425 0.509 0.675 0.838 1.000 1.160 1.24 1.322 1.47 1.63 1.78 2.00 2.22
  38       0.370 0.462 0.553 0.734 0.912 1.089 1.26 1.35 1.44 1.61 1.78 1.94 2.19 2.43
  40       0.390 0.487 0.583 0.774 0.962 1.148 1.33 1.42 4.52 1.69 1.87 2.05 2.31 2.57
42                 1.01 1.21 1.40 1.50 1.60 1.79 1.97 2.16 2.44 2.71
    45             1.09 1.30 1.51 1.61 1.71 1.92 2.12 2.32 2.62 2.91
48                 1.16 1.39 1.61 1.72 1.83 2.05 2.27 2.48 2.81 3.12
  51               1.23 1.47 1.71 1.83 1.95 2.18 2.42 2.65 2.99 3.33
    54             1.31 1.56 1.82 1.94 2.07 2.32 2.56 2.81 3.18 3.54
  57               1.38 1.65 1.95 2.05 2.19 2.45 2.71 2.97 3.36 3.74
60                 1.46 1.74 2.02 2.16 2.31 2.58 2.86 3.14 3.55 3.95
  63               1.53 1.83 2.13 2.27 2.42 2.72 3.01 3.30 3.73 4.16
  65               1.58 1.89 2.20 2.35 2.50 2.81 3.11 3.41 3.85 4.29
  68               1.65 1.98 2.30 2.46 2.62 2.94 3.26 3.57 4.04 4.50
  70               1.70 2.04 2.37 2.53 2.70 3.03 3.35 3.68 4.16 4.64
    73             1.78 2.12 2.47 2.64 2.82 .316 3.50 3.84 4.35 4.85
76                 1.85 2.12 2.58 2.76 2.94 3.29 3.65 4.00 4.53 5.05
  77                   2.61 2.79 2.98 3.34 3.70 4.06 4.59 5.12
  80                   2.71 2.90 3.09 3.47 3.85 4.22 4.78 5.33
外径/mm 壁厚/mm
(2.9)3.0 3.2 3.5(3.6) 4.0 4.5 5.0 (5.4)5.5 6.0 (6.3)6.5 7.0(7.1) 7.5 8.0 8.5 (8.8)9.0 9.5 10
系列 1 系列 2 系列 3 单位长度理论质量/(kg/m)
    83 5.92 6.30 6.86 7.79 8.71 9.62 10.51 11.39 12.26 13.12 13.96 14.80 15.62 16.42 17.22 18.00
  85   6.07 6.46 7.04 7.99 8.93 9.86 10.78 11.69 12.58 13.46 14.33 15.19 16.04 16.87 17.69 18.49
89     6.36 6.77 7.38 8.38 9.38 10.36 11.33 12.28 13.22 14.16 15.07 15.98 16.87 17.76 18.63 19.48
  95   6.81 7.24 7.90 8.98 10.04 11.10 12.14 13.17 14.19 15.19 16.18 17.16 18.13 19.09 20.03 20.96
  102   7.32 7.80 8.50 9.67 10.82 11.96 13.09 14.21 15.31 16.40 17.48 18.55 19.60 20.64 21.67 22.69
    108 7.77 8.27 9.02 10.26 11.49 12.70 13.90 15.09 16.27 17.44 18.59 19.73 20.86 21.97 23.08 24.17
114     27.94 30.19 32.38 34.52 36.62 38.67 40.66 42.61 44.51 46.36 49.91 53.27 54.87 56.42 59.38 62.15
  121   29.84 32.26 34.62 36.94 39.21 41.43 43.60 45.72 47.79 49.81 53.71 57.41 59.18 60.91 64.21 67.83
  127   31.47 34.03 36.55 39.01 41.13 43.80 46.12 48.38 50.60 52.77 56.96 60.96 62.88 64.76 68.36 71.76
  133   33.10 35.81 38.47 41.08 43.65 46.16 48.63 51.05 53.41 55.73 60.22 64.51 66.58 68.60 72.50 76.20
140     34.99 37.88 40.71 43.50 46.24 48.93 51.56 54.15 56.63 59.18 64.02 68.65 70.90 73.09 77.33 81.38
    142 35.54 38.47 41.36 44.19 46.98 49.72 52.41 55.04 47.36 60.17 65.11 68.84 72.13 74.38 78.72 82.86
  146   36.62 39.66 42.64 45.57 48.46 51.29 54.08 56.82 59.50 62.14 67.27 72.20 74.60 76.94 81.48 85.82
    152 38.25 41.43 44.56 47.64 50.68 53.66 56.59 59.48 62.32 65.10 70.53 75.76 78.30 80.79 85.62 90.26
    159 40.15 43.50 46.80 50.06 53.27 56.42 59.53 62.59 65.60 68.55 74.33 79.90 82.61 85.27 90.45 95.43
168     42.59 46.17 49.69 53.17 56.59 59.97 63.30 66.58 69.81 72.99 79.21 85.22 88.16 91.04 96.67 102.09
    180 45.84 49.72 53.54 57.31 61.03 64.71 68.33 71.91 75.43 78.91 85.72 92.33 95.56 98.74 104.95 110.97
    194 49.64 53.86 58.02 62.14 66.21 70.23 74.02 78.12 81.99 85.82 93.31 100.61 104.19 107.71 114.62 121.33
  203   52.08 56.52 60.91 65.25 69.54 73.78 77.97 82.12 86.21 90.26 98.20 105.94 109.74 113.49 120.83 127.99
219     56.42 61.26 66.04 70.77 75.46 80.10 84.68 89.22 93.71 98.15 106.88 115.41 119.60 123.74 131.88 139.82
    245 63.48 68.95 74.37 79375 83.08 90.35 95.58 100.76 105.89 110.97 120.98 130.80 135.63 140.41 149.83 159.06
273     71.07 77.24 83.35 89.42 95.43 101.40 107.23 113.19 119.01 124.78 136.17 147.37 152.89 158.37 169.17 179.77
  299   78.13 84.93 91.69 98.39 105.05 111.68 118.22 124.73 131.19 137.60 150.28 162.76 168.92 175.04 187.12 199.01
325     85.18 92.63 100.02 107.37 114.67 121.92 129.12 136.27 143.37 150.43 164.38 178.14 184.95 191.71 205.07 218.24
  340   89.25 97.07 104.84 112.56 120.22 127.85 135.42 142.94 150.41 157.83 172.53 187.03 194.21 201.34 215.44 229.35
  351   92.23 100.32 108.36 116.35 124.29 132.18 140.02 147.81 155.56 163.25 178.49 193.53 200.98 208.38 223.04 237.48
356     93.59 101.80 109.97 118.08 126.14 134.16 142.12 150.04 157.91 165.72 181.21 196.50 204.07 211.60 226.49 241.19
  377   99.28 108.02 116.69 125.32 133.90 142.44 150.92 159.35 167.74 176.07 192.59 208.92 217.01 225.05 240.98 256.71
  402   106.06 115.41 124.71 133.95 143.15 152.30 161.40 170.45 179.45 188.40 206.16 233.72 232.42 241.08 258.24 275.21
406     107.15 116.60 126.00 135.34 144.64 153.89 163.09 172.24 181.34 190.39 208.34 226.10 234.90 243.66 261.02 278.18
  426   112.58 122.52 132.40 142.24 152.03 161.77 171.46 181.10 190.70 200.24 219.18 237.92 247.22 256.46 274.81 292.96
  450   119.05 130.61 140.09 150.52 160.91 171.24 181.52 191.76 201.94 212.08 232.20 252.12 262.01 271.85 291.38 310.72
457     120.99 131.68 142.35 152.95 163.51 174.01 187.47 194.77 205.23 215.54 236.01 256.28 266.34 276.36 296.23 315.91
  480   127.22 139.49 149.71 160.88 172.00 183.08 194.10 205.07 216.00 226.37 248.47 269.88 280.51 291.09 312.10 332.91
  500   132.65 145.41 156.12 167.79 179.40 190.77 202.48 213.95 225.37 236.74 259.32 281.72 292.84 303.91 325.91 347.91
508     134.82 146.79 158.70 170.56 182.37 194.13 205.85 217.51 229.13 240.70 263.68 286.47 297.79 309.06 331.45 253.65
  530   140.78 153.29 165.74 178.14 190.50 202.80 215.06 227.27 239.42 251.53 275.60 299.47 311.33 323.14 346.62 369.90
    560 148.92 163.13 175.36 188.50 201.60 214.64 227.64 240.58 253.48 266.33 291.88 317.23 329.85 342.40 367.36 392.12
610     162.49 176.97 191.40 205.78 220.10 234.38 248.61 262.79 276.92 291.01 319.02 346.84 360.67 374.46 401.88 429.11
  630   167.91 183.88 197.80 212.67 227.49 242.26 256.98 271.65 286.28 300.85 239.85 235.66 373.00 387.28 415.69 443.91
    660 176.06 191.77 207.43 223.04 238.60 254.11 269.57 284.99 300.35 315.67 346.15 376.43 391.50 406.52 436.41 466.10

ZHU:BIHOUZHONGKUOHAONEIDESHUJUSHIXUANYONG。

2)HUAFEIYONGGAOYAWUFENGGANGGUAN:ZHUYAOYONGYUSHUSONGJIEZHIWEIHECHENGANANLIAOQI(QINGYUDAN)JIAN、JIACHUN、NIAOSUDENG;YALIWEI 22MPa、32MPa,WENDUWEI -40~400℃ DEHUAGONGYUANLIAOJIEZHIDEGUANLI,BIAOZHUNWEI GB6479—2000《GAOYAHUAFEISHEBEIYONGWUFENGGANGGUAN》。

3)SHIYOULIEHUAYONGWUFENGGANGGUAN:ZHUYAOYONGYUSHIYOUJINGLIANCHANGDELUGUAN、REJIAOHUANQIJIQIGUANDAO,BIAOZHUNWEI GB9948—2006《SHIYOULIEHUAYONGWUFENGGANGGUAN》。

捕鱼大作战 4)BUXIUNAISUANWUFENGGANGGUAN:ZHUYAOYONGYUHUAGONG、SHIYOU、JIXIEYONGGUANDAO,YOUQISHIYONGYUSHUSONGQIANGFUSHIXINGJIEZHI、TIWENHUOGAOWENJIEZHI、BIAOZHUNWEI GB/T 14976-2002《LIUTISHUSONGYONGBUXIUGANGWUFENGGANGGUAN》。

捕鱼大作战 WUFENGGANGGUANYEKEFENWEIYIBANWUFENGGANGGUANYUZHUANYEWUFENGGANGGUANLIANGZHONG,JIANBIAO 2-4。

表 2-4 无缝钢管分类

5)HANJIEGANGGUAN:ZHUYAOYONGYUGONGCHENGYALI ≤1.6MPa DEGUANDAOSHANG,YINQIGUANBIZONGXIANGYOUYITIAOHANFENG,GUCHENGZHIWEIHANJIEGANGGUAN。TAKEFENWEIDIYALIUTISHUSONGYONGHANJIEGANGGUAN(GB/T 3091—2008,JIANBIAO 2-5)HELUOXUANFENGHANJIEGANGGUAN、GANGBANJUANZHIZHIFENGHANJIEGANGGUAN。LUOXUANFENGHANJIEGANGGUANSHIYONGYUSHUI、WUSHUI、KONGQI、CAINUANZHENGQIDENGCHANGWENDIYALIUTIDESHUSONG,LUOXUANFENGMAIHUHANGANGGUANDECHANGYONGGUIGE(SY/T 5037-2000)JIANBIAO 2-6。

表 2-5 低压流体输送用焊接钢管
公称口径/mm 公称外径/mm 普通钢管 加厚钢管
公称壁厚/mm 理论质量/(kg/m) 公称壁厚/mm 理论质量/(kg/m)
6 10.2 2.0 0.40 2.5 0.47
8 13.4 2.5 0.68 2.8 0.74
10 17.2 2.5 0.91 2.8 0.99
15 21.3 2.8 1.28 3.5 1.54
20 26.9 2.8 1.66 3.5 2.02
25 33.7 3.2 2.41 4.0 2.93
32 42.4 3.5 3.36 4.0 3.79
40 48.3 3.5 3.87 4.5 4.86
50 60.3 3.8 5.29 4.5 6.19
65 76.1 4.0 7.11 4.5 7.95
80 88.9 4.0 8.38 5.0 10.35
100 114.3 4.0 10.88 5.0 13.48
125 139.7 4.0 13.39 5.5 18.20
150 168.3 4.5 18.18 6.0 24.02
表 2-6 低压流体输送管道用螺旋缝埋弧焊钢管的常用规格
公称外径/mm 公称壁厚/mm
5 5.4 5.6 6 6.3 7.1 8 8.8 10 11 12.5 14.2 16 17.5 20
理论质量/(kg/m)
273 33.05 35.64 36.93 39.51 41.44 46.56 52.28 57.34 64.86            
323.9 39.32 42.42 43.96 47.04 49.34 55.47 62.32 68.38 77.41            
355.6 43.23 46.64 48.34 51.73 54.27 61.02 68.58 75.26 85.23            
(377) 45.87 49.49 51.29 54.90 57.59 64.77 72.80 79.91 90.51            
406.4 49.50 53.40 55.35 59.25 62.16 69.92 78.60 86.29 97.76 107.26          
(426) 51.91 56.01 58.06 62.15 65.21 73.35 82.47 90.54 102.59 112.58          
457 55.73 60.14 62.34 66.73 70.02 78.78 88.58 97.27 110.24 120.99 137.03        
508     69.38 74.28 77.95 87.71 98.65 108.34 122.81 134.82 152.75        
(529)     72.28 77.39 81.21 91.38 102.79 112.89 127.99 140.52 159.22        
559     76.43 81.83 85.87 96.64 108.71 119.41 135.39 148.66 168.47        
610       89.37 93.80 105.57 118.77 130.47 147.97 162.49 184.19        
(630)       92.33 96.90 109.07 122.72 134.81 152.90 167.92 190.36        
660       96.77 101.56 114.32 128.63 141.32 160.30 176.06 199.6 226.15      
711         109.49 123.25 138.70 152.39 172.88 189.89 215.33 244.01      
(720)         110.89 124.83 140.47 154.35 175.10 192.34 218.10 247.17      
762         117.41 132.18 148.76 163.46 185.45 203.73 231.05 261.87      
813         125.33 141.11 158.82 174.53 198.03 217.56 246.77 279.73      
864         133.26 150.04 168.88 185.60 210.61 231.40 262.49 297.59 334.61    
914             178.75 196.45 222.94 244.96 277.90 315.10 354.34    
1016             198.87 218.58 248.09 272.63 309.35 350.82 394.58    

ZHU:WAIJINGZHONGKUOHAONEIDESHUJUSHIXUANYONG。

捕鱼大作战 HANJIEGANGGUANYONGYUSHIYOUHETIANRANQIZHANGJULISHUSONGGUANDAOJIAODUO。WOGUOCHUKOUDEGANGGUANZHONGHANJIEGANGGUANBIWUFENGGANGGUANDUO,JINNIANLAI,MEIGUOJINKOUHANJIEGANGGUAN 1/3 SHIZHONGGUOCHANPIN。

(2)YOUSEJINSHUGUAN

1)TONGJITONGHEJINGUAN:GUANDAOGONGCHENGYONGTONGGUANGUANCAIYOUCHUNTONGGUAN(GONGYECHUNTONG)、HUANGTONGGUAN(TONGXINHEJINYUTESHUHUANGTONG)HEQINGTONGGUAN(LVQINGTONGHEXIQINGTONGDENG)。ANZHIZAOFANGFA,TONGGUANYOUKEFENWEILAZHIGUAN、YAZHIGUANHEJIZHIGUANDENG,YIBANZHONG、DIYAGUANDAOCAIYONGLAZHIGUAN。CHUNTONGGUANHEHUANGTONGGUANDADUOYONGYUZHIZAOHUANRESHEBEI、ZHILENGXITONG、HUAGONGGUANLU、YIJIYIBIAODECEYAGUANXIANHUOCHUANSONGYETIDEGUANXIANSHANG。

CHUNTONGGUANSHIYONGYUGONGZUOYALIZAI 4MPa YIXIA、WENDUWEI -196~250℃ DEGUANLU、HUANGTONGGUANSHIYONGYUGONGZUOYALIZAI 22MPa YIXIA、WENDUWEI -158~120℃ DEGUANLU。ZAIZHILENGXITONGZHONG,TONGGUANSHIYONGYUGONGZUOYALIDIYU 2MPa、WENDUWEI -20~150℃,SHUSONGZHILENGJIYURUNHUAYOUDEGUANLUSHANG,JINNIANLAIYIYONGZAISHINEIRANQIGUANLUJIGAOJIBINGUANDELENGRESHUIXITONGSHANG。

捕鱼大作战 2)LVJILVHEJINGUAN:LVJILVHEJINGUANZHIYAOYONGYUSHUSONGZHIFANGSUAN、LIUHUAQING、ERYANGHUATANHEXIAOSUAN、CUSUANDENGGUANDAO。TAYIBANCAIYONGLAZHIHEJIYADENGFANGFASHENGCHAN;QIYOUZHILIANGQING、BUXIUSHIDENGTEDIAN,DANQIJIXIEQIANGDUJIAOCHA,BUNENGCHENGSHOUJIAOGAOYALI。

3)TAIGUAN:TAIGUANCHANGYONGYUQITAGUANCAIWUFASHENGRENDEGONGYIBUWEI,QIZHUYAOTEDIANSHIZHILIANGQING、QIANGDUGAO、NAIFUSHI、NAIDIWEN,SHIYONGWENDUFANWEIWEI -140~250℃,DANGWENDUGAOYU 250℃ SHI,QILIXUEXINGNENGXIAJIANG。

(3)ZHUTIEGUAN

1)GAOGUIZHUTIEGUAN:GAOGUIGUANDAOSHIYOUHANTANLIANGZAI 0.5%~1.2%(ZHILIANGFENSHU,XIATONG),HANGUILIANGZAI 10%~17% DETIEGUIHEJINZUCHENG,JUYOUHENGAODENAIFUSHIXINGNENG。CHANGYONGDEGAOGUIZHUTIEHANGUILIANGWEI 14.5%,SUIZHEGUIHANLIANGDEZENGJIA,NAIFUSHIXINGNENGZENGDA,DANCUIXINGYEBIANDA。YIBANSHIYONGYALIWEI 0.25MPa YIXIA。

捕鱼大作战 2)PUTONGZHUTIEGUAN:PUTONGCHENGCHAZHUTIEGUANYONGYUJIPAISHUIGUANDAO,ANYALIBUTONGFENWEIDIYAGUAN(<0.45MPa)、ZHONGYAGUAN(0.45~0.75MPa)HEGAOYAGUAN(0.75~1.0MPa),JIANGGUANYUFALANZHUCHENGYITIDEPUTONGFALANZHUTIEGUANCHAIXIEFANGBIAN,YINGYONGJIAOGUANGFAN。

(4)FEIJINSHUGUAN

捕鱼大作战 1)NAISUANFENQUANSULIAOGUAN:NAISUANFENQUANSULIAOGUANJUYOULIANGHAODENAIFUSHIXINGNENG,NENGKANGDABUFENSUANXING、YOUJIRONGJIDENGFUSHI,DANBUNAIJIANXINGJIQIANGYANGHUAXINGDESUANFUSHI。YOUYUQICHONGJIRENXINGCHA,JIAOCUI,GUBUYIZAIYOUJIXIEZHENDONG、WENDUBIANHUADADEQINGKUANGXIASHIYONG,YIBANYONGYUWENDUWEI -30~130℃、YALI <0.6MPa DEGONGKUANG。

2)YINGJULVYIXIGUAN:YINGJULVYIXIGUANDUIBUTONGNONGDUDEDABUFENSUANJIANYANLEIDERONGYEYOUJIAOHAODENAIFUSHIXING,DANZAI 50%YISHANGDEXIAOSUANJIFAYANLIUSUANZHONGZEBUWENDING。QICHUANREXISHUDI、SUXINGHAO,BUGUOQIQIANGDUCHA,QIEZHIYOUZAI 60℃ YIXIASHICAINENGBAOCHISHIDANGQIANGDU,YONGYUYALI <0.6MPa DEGONGKUANG。

捕鱼大作战 3)SHIMOGUAN:SHIMOGUANJUYOULIANGHAODENAIFUSHIXING,QIEREZHANGXISHUXIAO,BUWURANJIEZHI,DANQIJIAOCUI,QIANGDUDI,SHIYONGYUWENDU <150℃、YALI <0.3MPa DEGONGKUANG。

捕鱼大作战 4)NAISUANTAOCIGUAN:NAISUANTAOCIGUANJUYOULIANGHAODENAIFUSHIXING、BUSHENTOUXING。DANTANAIWENDUZHOUBIANXINGCHA、QIANGDUCHA、QIANGDUDI、BUYIYONGYUJUDUHUOYIRANYIBAOJIEZHI,YIBANYONGYUWENDU <120℃、YALIWEICHANGYADEGONGKUANG。

5)BOLIGUAN:BOLIGUANDUICHUQINGFUSUANWAIDESUANLEI、XIJIANJIYOUJIRONGJIDENGJUYOULIANGHAODENAISHIXING,DANQIKANGLAQIANGDUDI、CHANGYONGYUWENDU <120℃、YALI <2.0MPa DEGONGKUANG。

6)HUNNINGTUGUAN:HUNNINGTUGUANFENWEIYUYINGLIHEZIYINGLIGANGJINHUNNINGTUGUANLIANGZHONG。GUANKOULIANJIECAIYONGCHENGCHAJIEKOU,YONGYUANXINGJIEMIANDEXIANGJIAOQUANMIFENG,SHIYONGYUZHANGJULISHUSONGDIYASHUI、QIDENG,YIBANYONGYUYALI <1.0MPa DEGONGKUANG。

YIBANWUFENGGANGGUANYOU 10、20、Q295、Q345 PAIHAODEGANGZHIZAO。ANZHIZAOFANGFAFENWEIREYAWUFENGGANGGUANHELENGBA(YA)WUFENGGUAN,REYAGANGGUANDEZHANGDUWEI 3000~12000mm。LENGBAGANGGUANDEZHANGDUWEI 3000~10500mm。SHUSONGLIUTIYONGWUFENGGANGGUAN,CHANGYONGGUIGEJIANBIAO 2-3。

2-2 管道管理的技术要求有哪些?

捕鱼大作战 DA:GUANDAOGUANLIDEJISHUYAOQIUSHI:

(1)JIANLIGUANDAODEJISHUDANGANYUTAIZHANG。GUANDAODANGANYINGBAOKUOTUYANG、ANZHUANGYANSHOUJISHUZILIAO、WEIXIUJILU、YUNXINGSHIJIANTONGJIBIAODENG。

捕鱼大作战 (2)JIANLIGUANDAOGUANLIDEGUIZHANGZHIDU。DUIYALIGUANDAO、SHIYONGDANWEIYINGGENJUYALIGUANDAOJISHUBIAOZHUN、FAGUIJIANLIANQUANGUANLIZHIDU、CAOZUOZHEANQUANBEIXUNZHIDU、GONGYISHENGCHANZAOZUOZHIDU、JIANYANWEIHUZHIDU、SHIGUGUANLIZHIDUJIBAOFEIGENGXINZHIDUDENG。

捕鱼大作战 DUIYUCONGSHIYALIGUANDAO、GUANJIANDESHEJI、ZHIZAO、ANZHUANG、WEIXIU、QUANMIANJIANYANDEDANWEI,JUNXUHUODEYOUGUANBUMENBANFADEXUKEZHENG,FANGKECONGSHIXIANGYINGDEGONGZUO。

(3)SHENGCHANGUANLI。CAOZUOZHEYINGDUISHIYONGDEGUANDAOJINXINGXUNHUIJIANCHA。NEIRONGBAOKUO:GUANDAODELINGBUJIANSHIFOUWANZHENGQIQUAN;YIBIAO、JILIANGQIJU、XINHAOLIANSUO、GEZHONGANQUANZHUANGZHI、ZIDONGDIAOJIEZHUANGZHISHIFOULINGMINKEKAO;GUANDAOSHIFOUYOUXIELOU、CHAOWEN、CHAOYA、GUOLENG、YICHANGZHENDONGXIANXIANG;GUANDAOZHIJIASHIFOULAOGU;GEZHONGLUOSHUANSHIFOUJINGU;FANGFUFANGDONGSHESHISHIFOUWANZHENGYOUXIAO;FAMENCAOZUOJIGOUDERUNHUAHEFANGHUSHIFOUFUHEYAOQIUDENG。

(4)WEIXIUGUANLI。GUANDAODEWEIXIUGUANLIYINGAN GB 50235—1997《GONGYEJINSHUGUANDAOGONGCHENGSHIGONGJIYANSHOUGUIFAN》DEGUIDINGJINXINGGUANLIYUYANSHOU。

2-3 管道工程常用文字符号有哪些?

DA:GUANDAOGONGCHENGCHANGYONGWENZIFUHAOJIANBIAO 2-7。

表 2-7 管道符号常用文字符号
符号 名称 符号 符号 名称 符号
1 管子外径 Dw,dm 37 热量 Q
2 管子内径 Du,dn 38 热容 C
3 直径 D、d 39 质量定压热容 cp
4 公称直径 DN 40 质量定容热容 cv
5 管子半径 R、r 41 设施温度 t、τ、θ
6 弯曲半径 R 42 热力学温度 T
7 压力 p 43 温差 Δt、ΔT
8 公称压力 PN 44 质量 m
9 应力 σ 45 密度 ρ
10 许用应力 [σ] 46 质量热容比 γ
11 力矩 M 47 μ
12 弯矩 W 48 运动粘度 ν
13 惯性矩 J 49 动力粘度 μ
14 截面系数 W 50 沿程阻力系数 λ
15 弹性流量 E 51 局部阻力系数 ζ
16 流速 V、v、w 52 雷诺数 Re
17 流量 Q、q、L 53 流量系数 μ
18 质量流量 G 54 谢才系数 C
19 扬程 H 55 线[膨]胀系数 αt
20 水头损失 H、h 56 体[膨]胀系数 αv
21 水力坡度 I、i 57 F
22 水力半径 R 58 加速度 α
23 W(A) 59 角速度 ω
24 功率 P 60 振幅 A
25 转速 N 61 能(量) E
26 效率 η 62 热导率 λ
27 平面角 α、β、γ、θ、ø 63 表面传播系数 α
28 长度 L、l 64 传热系数 Κ
29 B、b 65 热阻 R
30 H、h 66 围护结构热惰性指标 D
31 厚度 S、δ、t、T 67 小时变化系数 Kh
32 面积 A、S 68 管道粗糙系数 n、K
33 容积 V 69 设计压力 P
34 时间 t 70 试验压力 Pτ、Pe
35 周期 T 71 设计温度下的许用压力 PA
36 频率 f 72 冷拉系数 ε

2-4 管道代号有哪些?

捕鱼大作战 DA:GUANDAODAIHAOJIANBIAO 2-8。

表 2-8 管道符号
符号 名称 符号 符号 名称 符号
1 饱和蒸汽管 S 40 压缩空气管 A
2 过热蒸汽管 OS 41 氧气管 OX
3 生产蒸汽管 PS 42 液氧管 LOX
4 生活蒸汽管 DS 43 氮气管 N
5 采暖蒸汽管 HS 44 液氮管 LN
6 伴热蒸汽管 TS 45 氢气管 HY
7 吹扫蒸汽管 BLS 46 氩气管 AB
8 二次蒸汽管 SS 47 乙炔管 AC
9 废蒸汽管 WS 48 二氧化碳管 CD
10 凝结水管(自流) CW 49 气态丙烷管(液化石油气) PG
11 凝结水管(压力流) CWP 50 液态丙烷管(液化石油气) LPG
12 采暖热水供水管 H 51 煤气管(不分类型) G
13 采暖热水回水管 HR 52 高炉煤气管 BFG
14 生产热水管(循环自流) PH 53 焦炉煤气管 COG
15 生产热水管(循环压力流) PHP 54 转炉煤气管 LDG
16 生活热水供水管 DH 55 发生炉热煤气管 HGG
17 生活热水回水管 DHR 56 发生炉冷煤气管 CGG
18 给水管 W 57 发生炉水煤气管 WGG
19 软化水管 SW 58 混合煤气管 MIG
20 除盐水管 DMW 59 天然气管 NG
21 循环水供水管 CWS 60 沼气罐 MG
22 循环水回水管 CWR 61 空气放空管 V
23 含酚热循环水供水管 HC 62 氧气放空管 VOX
24 含酚热循环供水管 HCR 63 氢气放空管 VH
25 含酚冷循环供水管 CC 64 氮气放空管 VN
26 含酚冷循环回水管 CCR 65 氩气放空管 VAR
27 循环管 CP 66 煤气放空管 VC
28 配水管 P 67 二氧化碳放空管 VCD
29 排水管 D 68 乙炔放空管 VAC
30 生产排水管 PD 69 蒸汽放空管 ES
31 连续污水管 CB 70 供油管(不分类型) O
32 定期污水管 PC 71 回油管(不分类型) OR
33 溢水管 OF 72 煤油管 KO
34 补给水管 M 73 重油供油管 HO
35 盐溶液管 SA 74 重油回油管 HOR
36 硫酸管 SFA 75 焦油罐 T
37 盐酸管 HA 76 乳化液 E
38 碱溶液(氢氧化钠)管 SL 77 汽油管 GO
39 膨胀管 EXP 78 机油管 MO

2-5 管道的公称直径是什么?

DA:GUANDAOGONGCHENGZHONG,GUANZIZHONGLEIFANDUO,GUANZIDEDAXIAOTONGCHANGYONGGUANWAIJING D HEGUANNEIJING d BIAOSHI,LIANGDUSHIYONGGUOCHENGZHONG,YOUYUYONGTUBUYI,XUYAODUOZHONGZHIJINGXIANGYINGDEGUANLUFUJIAN(BAOKUOGUANJIAN、FAMEN、FALANDENG),ZHEIYANG,GUANCAIHEFUJIANDEZHIJINGCHICUNJIUXIANGDANGDUO,JIUJIZHIZAO、SHEJIHESHIGONGZAOCHENGLEBUBIAN,WEILENENGPILIANGSHENGCHAN、JIANGDICHENGBEN、TIGAOXIAOYI,SHIGUANZIHEGUANLIFUJIANJUYOUTONGYONGXINGHEHUHUANXING,BIXUDUIGUANZIHEGUANLIFUJIANSHIXINGBIAOZHUNHUA,ERGONGCHENGZHIJINGYOUSHIGUANDAOGONGCHENGBIAOZHUNHUAZHONGYAONEIRONG。SUOWEIGONGCHENGZHIJINGJIUSHIGEZHONGGUANDAOYUANJIANDETONGYONGKOUJING,YOUCHENGGONGCHENGTONGJING、GONGCHENGKOUJING、GONGCHENGCHICUN(XIANZAIGUOJISHANGPUBIANSHIYONGGONGCHENGCHICUNZHEIYICHENGWEI),YONGFUHAO DN BIAOSHI,DN SHIYONGYUGUANDAOXITONGYUANJIANDEZIMUHESHUZIZUHEDECHICUNBIAOSHI。TAYOUZIMU DN HEHOUGENWUYINCIDEZHENGSHUSHUZIZUCHENG。XIANXINGGUANDAOYUANJIANDEGONGCHENGZHIJINGAN GB/T 1047-2005 ZHIGUIDING,JIANBIAO 2-9。

表 2-9 管道元件的 DN(公称直径)
DN6 DN40 DN200 DN600 DN1400 DN2600 DN4000
DN8 DN50 DN250 DN700 DN1500 DN2800  
DN10 DN65 DN300 DN800 DN1600 DN3000  
DN15 DN80 DN350 DN900 DN1800 DN3200  
DN20 DN100 DN400 DN1000 DN2000 DN3400  
DN25 DN125 DN450 DN1100 DN2200 DN3600  
DN32 DN150 DN500 DN1200 DN2400 DN3800  

2-6 管道的公称压力、试验压力、工作压力是什么?

捕鱼大作战 DA:GONGCHENGYALI、SHIYANYALI、GONGZUOYALISHI:

(1)GONGCHENGYALI:ZHIPINZAIJIZHUNWENDUXIADENAIYAQIANGDUCHENGWEIGONGCHENGYALI,YONGFUHAO PN BIAOSHI,PN SHIYUGUANDAOXITONGYUANJIANDELIXUEXINGNENGHECHICUNTEXINGXIANGGUAN、YONGYUCANKAODEZIMUHESHUZIZUHEDEBIAOSHI。TAYOUZIMU PN HEHOUGENWUYINCIDESHUZIZUCHENG。RUGONGCHENGYALIWEI 1.0MPa,JIWEI PN10。YOUYUZHIPINDECAILIAOBUTONG,QIJIZHUNWENDUYEBUTONG,ZHUTIEHETONGDEJIZHUNWENDUWEI 120℃,GANGDEJIZHUNWENDUWEI 200℃,HEJINGANGDEJIZHUNWENDUWEI 250℃。SULIAOZHIPINDEJIZHUNWENDUWEI 20℃,ZHIPINZAIJIZHUNWENDUXIADENAIYAQIANGDUJIEJINCHANGWENSHIDENAIYAQIANGDU,GUGONGCHENGYALIYEJIEJINCHANGWENXIACAILIAODENAIYAQIANGDU。GUANDAODEGONGCHENGYALIJIANBIAO 2-10。

表 2-10 管道元件的 PN(公称压力)
DIN 系列 ANSI 系列
PN2.5 PN20
PN6 PN50
PN10 PN110
PN16 PN150
PN25 PN260
PN40 PN420
PN63  
PN100  

ZHU:BIYAOSHIYUNXUXUANYONGQITADE PN ZHI。

(2)工作压力:管子和管路附近在正常运行条件下所承受的压力用符号 p 表 示,这个运行条件必须是指某一操作温度,因而说明某制品的压力工作应注明其工作温度,通常是在 p 的下角附加数字,该数字是最高工作温度除 10 所得的正式整数值,如介质的最高强度为 300℃,工作压力为 10MPa,则记为 p3010MPa。

(3)试验压力:管道与管路附件在出厂前,必须进行压力试验,检查其强度和密封性,对制品进行强度试验的压力称为强度试验压力,用符号 ps 表示,如试验压力为 4MPa,记为 ps捕鱼大作战4MPa。从安全角度考虑,试验压力必须大于公称压力。

捕鱼大作战 ZHIPINDEGONGCHENGYALIANZHAOTADEDINGYISHIZHIJIZHUNWENDUXIADENAIYAQIANGDU,DANZAIHENDUOQINGKUANGXIA,ZHIPINBINGFEIZAIJIZHUNWENDUXIAGONGZUO,SUIZHEWENDUDEBIANHUA,ZHIPINDENAIYAQIANGDUYEGENZHEFASHENGBIANHUA,SUOYILISHUYUMOUYIGONGCHENGYALIDEZHIPIN,JIUJINGNENGCHENGSHOUDUODADEGONGZUOYALI,YAOYOUJIEZHIDEGONGZUOWENDUJUEDING,YINCIJIUXUYAOZHIDAOZHIPINZAIBUTONGDEGONGZUOWENDUXIAGONGCHENGYALIHEGONGZUOYALIDEGUANXI。WEICI,BIXUTONGGUOQIANGDUJISUANZHAOCHUZHIPINDENAIYAQIANGDUYUWENDUZHIJIANDEBIANHUAGUILV。ZAIGONGCHENGSHIJIANZHONG,TONGCHANGSHIANZHAOZHIPINDEZUIGAONAIWENJIEXIAN,BAGONGZUOWENDUFENWEIRUOGANDENGJI,BINGJISUANMEIGEWENDUDENGJIXIAZHIPINDEYUNXUDEGONGZUOYALI。LIRU:YONGYOUZHITANSUGANGZHIZAODEZHIPIN,GONGZUOWENDUFENWEI 11 GEDENGJI,ZAIMEIYIGEGONGZUOWENDUDENGJIXIA,LIECHUZAIGAIWENDUDENGJIXIADEGONGZUOYALI,JIANBIAO 2-11。

表 2-11 优质碳素钢制品公称压力与工作压力的关系
序号 温度等级 温度范围/℃ 最大工作压力 序号 温度等级 温度范围/℃ 最大工作压力
1 1 0~200 1PN 7 7 351~375 0.67PN
2 2 201~250 0.92PN 8 8 376~400 0.64PN
3 3 251~275 0.86PN 9 9 401~425 0.55PN
4 4 276~300 0.81PN 10 10 426~435 0.50PN
5 5 301~325 0.75PN 11 11 436~450 0.45PN
6 6 326~350 0.71PN        

QITACAILIAODEZHIPIN,TONGYANGKEYIFENCHENGBUTONGDEWENDUDENGJIBINGJISUANCHUZAIMEIYIGEGONGZUOWENDUXIASUOCHENGSHOUDEZUIDAGONGZUOYALI。ZHEIYANGWOMENKEYIZHIDINGCHUGEZHONGZHIPINDEGONGCHENGYALI、GONGZUOWENDUHEZUIDAGONGZUOYALIDEHUANSUANGUANXI。BIANZHICHENGBIANYUYINGYONGDEBIAOGE,YIBIANANZHAOZHIPINDEGONGCHENGYALIHEJIEZHIDEGONGZUOWENDULAIQUEDINGSUOYUNXUCHENGSHOUDEZUIDAGONGZUOYALI,HUOZHEANZHAOJIEZHIDEGONGZUOYALILAIXUANZEGUANCAIHEGUANLUFUJIAN。BIAO 2-12、BIAO 2-13、BIAO 2-14FENBIELIECHULETANGANGJIHEJINGANGZHIJIAN、ZHUTIEZHIJIAN、TONGZHIJIANDEGONGCHENGYALI、GONGZUOYALI、GONGZUOWENDUHEZUIDAGONGZUOYALIDEGUANXI。ZHEIXIEBIAOCHENGWEIZHIJIANDEWENYABIAO。ZAIXUANZEGUANCAI、GUANLUFUJIANSHIJINGCHANGYONGDAO。

表 2-12 碳素钢、合金钢制品的公称压力与最大工作压力
材料 介质工作温度/℃
Q235A,Q235A·F ≤200 250 275 300 325 350                    
10,20,25,35,20g ≤200 250 275 300 325 350 375 400   425 435 450        
16Mn,ZG20Mn ≤200 300 325 350 375 400 410 415   425 435 440 450      
15MnV ≤250 300 350 375 400 410 420 430 440 450            
12~15MnMoV,16Mo ≤250 350 400 425 450 460 470 480 490 500 510 520        
12CrMo,15CrMo ≤250 350 400 425 450 460 470 480 490 500 510 520 525 530 535 540
Cr5Mo ≤250 350 400 425 450 475 480 490 500 505 515 525 535 540 545 550
12CrlMoV,12MoVWBSiRe ≤250 350 400 425 450 475 500 510 520 530 540 550 560 570 580  
12CrMoWVB ≤250 350 400 425 450 475 500 520 540 560 570 580 590 595 600  
1Cr18Ni9Ti,Cr18Ni12Mo2N ≤250 350 400 425 450 475 500 525 545 560 580 600 610 620 630 635
0Cr13,1Cr13,2Cr13 ≤250 300 375 400                        
公称压力 PN/MPa 最大工作压力/MPa
0.1 0.1 0.09 0.09 0.08 0.08 0.07 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.03
0.25 0.25 0.23 0.21 0.2 0.19 0.18 0.17 0.16 0.15 0.14 0.12 0.11 0.1 0.09 0.08 0.07
0.6 0.6 0.55 0.51 0.48 0.45 0.43 0.4 0.38 0.36 0.33 0.3 0.27 0.24 0.21 0.19 0.18
1.0 1.0 0.92 0.86 0.81 0.75 0.71 0.67 0.61 0.60 0.55 0.5 0.45 0.40 0.36 0.32 0.3
1.6 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.05 1.0 0.95 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.64 0.60 0.50 0.48
2.5 2.5 2.3 2.1 2.0 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.2 1.1 1.0 0.90 0.80 0.75
材料 介质工作温度/℃
Q235A,Q235A·F ≤200 250 275 300 325 350                    
10,20,25,35,20g ≤200 250 275 300 325 350 375 400   425 435 450        
16Mn,ZG20Mn ≤200 300 325 350 375 400 410 415   425 435 440 450      
15MnV ≤250 300 350 375 400 410 420 430 440 450            
12~15MnMoV,16Mo ≤250 350 400 425 450 460 470 480 490 500 510 520        
12CrMo,15CrMo ≤250 350 400 425 450 460 470 480 490 500 510 520 525 530 535 540
Cr5Mo ≤250 350 400 425 450 475 480 490 500 505 515 525 535 540 545 550
12CrlMoV,12MoVWBSiRe ≤250 350 400 425 450 475 500 510 520 530 540 550 560 570 580  
12CrMoWVB ≤250 350 400 425 450 475 500 520 540 560 570 580 590 595 600  
1Cr18Ni9Ti,Cr18Ni12Mo2N ≤250 350 400 425 450 475 500 525 545 560 580 600 610 620 630 635
0Cr13,1Cr13,2Cr13 ≤250 300 375 400                        
公称压力 PN/MPa 最大工作压力/MPa
4.0 4.0 3.7 3.4 3.2 3.0 2.8 2.7 2.5 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.3 1.2
6.4 6.4 5.9 5.5 5.2 4.9 4.6 4.4 4.1 3.8 3.5 3.2 2.8 2.5 2.3 2.0 1.9
10.0 10.0 9.02 8.6 8.1 7.6 7.2 6.8 6.4 6.0 5.6 5.0 4.5 4.0 3.6 3.2 3.0
16.0 16.0 14.7 13.7 13.0 12.1 11.5 10.8 10.2 9.6 9.0 8.0 7.2 6.4 5.7 5.1 4.8
20.0 20.0 18.4 17.2 16.2 15.2 14.4 13.6 12.8 12.0 11.2 10.2 9.0 8.0 7.2 6.4 6.0
22.0 22.0 20.2 18.9 17.8 16.7 15.8 15.0 14.0 13.2 12.3 11.0 9.9 8.8 7.9 7.0 6.6
25.0 25.0 23.0 21.5 20.2 19.0 18.0 17.0 16.0 15.0 14.0 12.5 11.2 10.0 9.0 8.0 7.5
32.0 32.0 29.4 27.5 25.9 24.3 23.0 21.7 20.5 19.2 17.9 16.0 14.4 12.8 11.5 10.2 9.6
表 2-13 铸铁制品的公称压力和最大工作压力
材料名称 介质工作温度/℃
灰铸铁及可锻铸铁 ≤120 200 250 300    
耐酸硅铸铁 ≤120          
球墨铸铁 ≤120 200 250 300 350 375
公称压力 PN/MPa 最大工作压力/MPa
0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.08 0.07
0.25 0.25 0.25 0.2 0.2 0.19 0.16
0.6 0.6 0.55 0.5 0.5 0.45 0.42
1.0 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.75 0.7
1.6 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.0
2.5 2.5 2.3 2.1 2.0 1.8 1.6
4.0 4.0 3.6 3.4 3.2 3.2 2.8
表 2-14 铜制品的公称压力与最大工作压力
公称压力 PN/MPa 介质工作温度/℃ 公称压力 PN/MPa 介质工作温度/℃
≤120 160 200 250 ≤120
最大工作压力/MPa 最大工作压力/MPa
0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.07 6.4 6.4
0.25 0.25 0.22 0.2 0.17 10.0 10.0
0.6 0.6 0.55 0.5 0.4 16.0 16.0
1.0 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 20.0 20.0
1.6 1.6 1.4 1.3 1.1 25.0 25.0
2.5 2.5 2.2 2.0 1.7    
4.0 4.0 3.6 3.2 2.7    

2-7 管道维修主要内容有哪些?

DA:WEILEQUEBAOGUANDAOYUNXINGYOUTIAOBUWEN,DONGNENGGONGYINGJINGJIANQUAN,BIXUDUIGEZHONGGUANDAOZAITOURUYUNXINGQIANJINXINGYIXILIEDEJIANCHAHESHIYAN,TONGSHIDUIYITOURUYUNXINGDEGUANDAOJINXINGDINGQIWEIXIU。GUANDAOWEIXIUZHUYAOBAOKUOXIALIENEIRONG:DONGLIGUANDAOXIULISHUNXU、XIULINEIRONG、SHIYAGUIDINGYIJIDONGLIGUANDAODAXIUHEJIANCHAJUNGONGYANSHOUDENG。

2-8 管道的维修程序有哪些?

DA:GUANDAODEWEIXIUCHENGXURUXIA:

管道维修程序示意图

工业管道及阀门维修问答(2)
工业管道及阀门维修问答(3)


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